Research Highlights

Publication Year: 2019
Schematic representation of moisture transport and gradients during the process of water vapor absorption. USDA Forest Service.
Highlight ID: 1323
Development of New Kinetics Models for Water Vapor Sorption in Wood

Wood is constantly exchanging water with its environment and these exchanges control nearly all of wood's amazing properties. Research has recently shown that this process is still not understood and ...
Untreated CLT samples exposed in a modified ground proximity test after approximately 6 months exposure. Pictured shelter tubes are of the subterranean termite, Reticulitermes spp. USDA Forest Service
Highlight ID: 1332
Going Big with Mass Timber Protection

Researchers are leading efforts to better understand mass timber as a next generation building material and provide safe effective protection strategies to ensure public safety and responsible forest ...
A method was developed to estimate biocide leaching from preservative-treated wood used above aquatic habitat. USDA Forest Service
Highlight ID: 1324
Method for Estimating Wood Preservative Leaching

Pressure-treated wood is widely used for construction projects in sensitive environments. This research project developed a method to estimate biocide leaching from pressure-treated wood exposed to pr ...
Publication Year: 2018
Photo of the historic ship Eureka. USDA Forest Service
Highlight ID: 1302
Examination of Historic National Park System Ship Eureka

Researchers collaborated with the National Park Service (NPS) to examine a historic ship preserved at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park. ...
Regions of the termite digestive tract showing the large hindgut, which is, essentially, an anaerobic bioreactor packed full of microbes that digest cellulose. USDA Forest Service
Highlight ID: 1305
Giving Termites "Stomach Aches"

Chitosan can be used to upset the microbial imbalance in the termite hindgut, leading to the establishment of three different bacterial pathogens. ...
Finger joint after failure showing smooth wood surfaces that could be easily refit together where the adhesive failed at low temperatures. USDA Forest Service.
Highlight ID: 1301
Wood Adhesives at High Temperatures

Researchers examined the performance of finger-jointed lumber to understand how it performs in fire. ...
Publication Year: 2017
CLT sample D4 prior to (left) and following (right) eight weeks of exposure to the Formosan termite, an invasive species of subterranean termite.
Highlight ID: 1279
Assessing termite impact on cross-laminated timber panels

Forest Service and Mississippi State University researchers are in the process of determining the impact of termites found in the Southeastern U.S. on cross-laminated timber (CLT), a mass timber produ ...
Phase-contrast light
microscopy of some protists found in the subterranean termite, Reticulitermes virginicus. A) Pyrsonympha minor, B) Spirotrichonympha flagellata, C) Trichonympha burlesquei, D)
Holomastigotes elongatum, E) Trichonympha agilis, F) Monocercomonas species. Scale bars are indicated for A and F, while B-E use the same scale bar as in A.
Highlight ID: 1278
Eco-friendly biopesticide protects wood from termites by affecting their hindgut symbionts

Chitosan kills termites by targeting their hindgut protists rather than the termite itself. ...
The stakes in the image are southern pine pressure treated with extractives of naturally durable wood species. These stakes have been installed in ground contact in Mississippi and Wisconsin and will be evaluated for the next 10 years.
Highlight ID: 1298
Effective utilization of naturally durable wood biomass offers an overlooked source of potential wood protectants

Forest Service researchers at the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisc., are evaluating extractives as potential next-generation wood preservatives. This bio-rational approach offers environmen ...
Flashover occuring during test 2 with a partiallyexposed CLT ceiling.
Highlight ID: 1273
Fire performance of CLT buildings

Fire tests demonstrate that CLT buildings can be designed to withstand fire. ...
Two copper-tolerant decay fungi, Fomitopsis palustris (left) and Wolfiporia cocos (right), exhibit delayed establishment on wood treated with copper plus targeted biocide (bottom wafer, 93) compared to wood treated with copper alone (top wafer, 44).
Highlight ID: 1286
Rational approach for discovering new, targeted biocides for wood protection

Forest Service researchers used a rational approach based on gene expression studies to identify a novel application of a fungicide for use in copper-based wood preservative systems. ...
Publication Year: 2015
Board treated with copper-based preservatives showing premature signs of rot caused by copper-tolerant brown rot fungi. USDA Forest Service
Highlight ID: 616
A Knowledge-based Approach for Developing Green Building Solutions

Scientists are using gene discovery to accelerate their understanding of copper tolerance in wood decay fungi and create green solutions for wood protection. ...
Sequential vacuum treatment of southern pine with naturally occurring cellulose nanocrystals followed by biocide demonstrated penetration of wood before agglomeration occurred (left), but reversing the treatment sequence resulted in agglomeration on the surface of southern pine (right). USDA Forest Service
Highlight ID: 602
Cellulose Nanocrystals Chemically Entrap Biocide in Wood

Forest Service scientists evaluated naturally occurring cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) that are reported to have unique chemical properties and impart high strength were evaluated for the potential to i ...
Mass Loss Calorimeter modified to include thermopile on chimney walls to compensate for radiant energy errors of the in-flow thermopile. Laura Hasburgh, USDA Forest Service
Highlight ID: 608
Comparison of Two Bench-scale Tests Used for Obtaining Heat Release Rate

There is a growing demand for material properties to be used as inputs in fire behavior models designed to address building fire safety. This comparative study evaluates using the mass loss calorimete ...
Researchers studied the effect of diet on carpenter ant brood development. Clemson University, USDA Cooperative Extension Slide Series,
Highlight ID: 604
Effects of Diet on Brood Development in the Carpenter Ant

A Forest Service scientist fed carpenter ants an artificial diet, and variations of this diet, with nutrient components removed to examine the effects on brood development. The potential B vitamin and ...
Completed efficacy trial plots on the Chipola Experimental Forest. USDA Forest Service
Highlight ID: 603
USFS Termiticide Report for 2014

The most recent efficacy data for termiticides currently on the market were reported as part of the USDA Forest Service Termiticide Testing Program. This report allows consumers and applicators natio ...
Publication Year: 2012
An unidentified waxy substance in honey mesquite cells creates a physical barrier against fungal hyphae. Tom Kuster, Forest Service
Highlight ID: 7
Natural Wood Durability Studied to Estimate Wood's Performance

Naturally occurring chemicals in some wood species make them more durable against deterioration ...
The Cedarburg Covered Bridge, WI was one of the bridges included in this study. Stan Lebow, Forest Service
Highlight ID: 10
New Guide Advises Treatments and Technologies To Protect Historic Wooden Bridges

Forest Service and university researchers collaborate to evaluate methods of protecting wooden bridges from fire and biodegradation. ...
The brown rot fungus Fibroporia radiculosa is very tolerant to copper. Steve Schmieding, Forest Service
Highlight ID: 24
Scientists Find the Achilles' Heel of Wood Fungi Tolerance to Preservatives

Inhibiting the enzymatic pathway in copper tolerant brown rot fungi can block its tolerance of commercial wood preservatives ...
The Fairbanks House demonstrates design and construction details that have allowed this wood structure to stand for  three centuries. Jeffery Howe, Boston College
Highlight ID: 2
Wood Can Last for Centuries if Protected From Moisture

Report dispels myths about wood construction through proper information that educates and empowers the public ...
Fire retardant treatments can reduce the contribution of wood-plastic composites to a fire. Craig Clemons, Forest Service
Highlight ID: 6
Wood-Plastic Composites Are More Desirable With Fire Retardant Treatments

Wood-plastic composites treated with fire retardants addresses fire concerns in the wildland-urban interface ...
Publication Year: 2011
Bacterial infection in termites experiencing colony collapse. The red coloration in the termite
Highlight ID: 302
Colony collapse of Eastern subterranean termites

Termite colonies in laboratory and field tests were rapidly eliminated using a trap, treat and release method with commercial termite toxicants and a patented termite bait developed at the Forest Prod ...
Stake plots in the Harrison Experimental Forest, Saucier, Mississippi, evaluate the durability of wood products. Stan Lebow, Forest Service
Highlight ID: 291
Durable wood product evaluations

In an effort to reduce the amount of time required to obtain meaningful durability data for wood products, it has become widely accepted to use smaller specimens in field tests. Smaller specimens gene ...
Publication Year: 2010

Highlight ID: 170
Centennial Edition, Wood Handbook—Wood as an Engineering Material

The Wood Handbook—Wood as an Engineering Material serves as a primary reference document for a wide variety of users-from the general public through architects and design engineers who use wood ...
Oxygen index test of a wood-plastic composite. Forest Service
Highlight ID: 161
Evaluation of Various Fire Retardants for Use in Wood Flour/Polyethylene Composites

Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) represent a class of materials increasingly used in residential construction and furniture-making. The fire performance of WPCs is not well understood, however, and ther ...

Highlight ID: 186
Identification of economically significant death-watch and spider beetles in Wisconsin

Two widely distributed beetle families, the death-watch (Anobiidae) and spider beetles (Ptinidae), include a number of economically significant species which cause damage to wooden materials and/or st ...

Highlight ID: 156
Improving Accelerated Testing of Durable Wood Products

Durable wood products such as posts, poles and timbers are expected to resist decay and termite attack for several decades. Testing the durability of new types of wood products is challenging because ...
Fumigating with essential oils from plants like dill kills termites. Forest Service
Highlight ID: 152
Natural fumigants protect wood against termites

Forest Products Laboratory researchers discovered that essential oils from some common plants such as dill, rosemary and lemongrass can be used as fumigants to kill termites. ...

Highlight ID: 157
Public Access to Actual Data Files for Cone Calorimeter Tests of Wood Products

The cone calorimeter test is a fire test used internationally for research and development of new fire retardants and to provide input data to models for predicting the reaction of building materials ...

Highlight ID: 171
Recalculating the Decay Hazard Index

Climate index values for estimating decay hazard to wood exposed outdoors above ground, commonly known as Scheffer index values, were calculated for 280 locations in the United States (270 locations i ...

Highlight ID: 190
Sol-gel technology to enhance performance properties of wood or wood fiber

With support from industry partners, FPL researchers are developing new sol-gel technologies to enhance performance properties of wood or wood fiber. Sol-gel technologies are wet-chemical techniques t ...
Termites dusted with N
Highlight ID: 155
Termite Eradication: A search for the Holy Grail

Regarding Wisconsin termines, laboratory tests were initiated to evaluate transfer of a number of different dusting compounds to un-dusted colony mates with varied results. ...

Team Members

NameJob TitlePhone

Arango, Rachel
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Research Entomologist608-231-9573

Bell, Craig
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Biological Science Technician662-338-3109

Bishell, Amy B.
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Biological Science Technician608-231-9254

Boyd, Blossie
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Biological Science Technician662-325-2669

Ciaramitaro, Tina
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Biological Sciences Tech.662-338-3106

Cooper, Shawn
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Biological Science Tech662-338-3100

Fye, Donald
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Biological Science Technician662-338-3138

Halverson, Steven
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Physical Science Technician608-231-9252

Johnson, Gregory
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Administrative Support Assistant662-338-3106

Kirker, Grant T.
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Research Forest Products Technologist608-231-9256

Lebow, Stan
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Research Forest Products Technologist

Mankowski, Mark , E.
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Research Entomologist 662-338-3124

Ohno, Katie M.
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Research Biologist608-231-9367

Shelton, Thomas Guy
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Supervisory Research Entomologist662-338-3108

Tang, Juliet D.
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Research Forest Products Technologist662-338-3107

Yang, Vina
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Products (Publications & Patents)

Below are the 50 most recent products author or co-authored by researchers of this unit that have been posted, sorted by publication year and title. To access the complete repository of FPL products, click here.
Publication YearTitleDate Posted
2021Biodeterioration of wood


2021Double duty: Boron rods as a simple, low capital alternative for dual treatment of ties and timbers


2021Durability of enhanced domestic hardwoods for U.S. Army tactical trailer deckings


2021Effects of loblolly pine extract, primary and quaternary alkyl ammonium chlorides combined with burgundy oil from eastern red cedar against subterranean termites and wood-decay fungi


2021Oxidation states of iron and manganese in lignocellulose altered by the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum measured in-situ using X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES)


2021Wood preservatives


2020A study of the gut bacterial community of Reticulitermes virginicus exposed to chitosan treatment


2020Analysis of a wide range of commercial exterior wood coatings


2020Bio-acoustic termite control


2020Biological resistance of nanoclay-treated plastic composites with different bamboo contents to three types of fungi


2020Bonding performance of adhesive systems for cross-laminated timber treated with micronized copper azole type C (MCA-C)


2020Defensive symbioses in social insects can inform human health and agriculture


2020Determining the role of siderophores from brown-rot fungi in copper tolerance


2020Effect of burgundy solid extracted from Eastern Red Cedar heartwood on subterranean termites and Wood-decay fungi


2020Effect of exterior wood coatings on the durability of cross-laminated timber against mold and decay fungi


2020Effects of wood moisture content and the level of acetylation on brown rot decay


2020Efficacy of alternative copper-based preservatives in protecting decking from biodegradation


2020Evaluation of a Soil Termiticide or Borate Non-Pressure Treatments for Protecting Douglas-Fir CLT in a Field Test: Two Years Results


2020Gene Expression Analysis of Three Putative Copper-Transporting ATPases in Copper-Tolerant Fibroporia radiculosa


2020New records and antennal variation of the elusive Ctenobium antennatum Leconte (Coleoptera: Ptinidae) from Massachusetts and Wisconsin, USA


2020PAST: The Pathway Association Studies Tool to Infer Biological Meaning from GWAS Datasets


2020Providing scalable pressure treatment options for mass timber using double vacuum techniques


2020Relationship between attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of western juniper and natural resistance to fungal and termite attack


2020Role of leaf litter in above-ground wood decay


2020Salt Damage in Wood: Controlled Laboratory Exposures and Mechanical Property Measurements


2020Statistical process control and related methods for improvement of the treated-wood industries


2020Synergistic effect of heartwood extracts in combination with linseed oil as wood preservatives against subterranean termite Heterotermes indicola (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae)


2020Use of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi for mycoremediation of treated wood wastes


2020Using boron rods as a source for dual treatment


2020Variation in mold susceptibility among hardwood species under laboratory conditions


2020Wood color changes and termiticidal properties of teak heartwood extract used as a wood preservative


2019Assessing waterborne pressure treatment suitability for glued laminated beams


2019Copper distribution and oxidation states near corroded fasteners in treated wood


2019Corrosiveness of Thermally Modified Wood


2019Evaluation of flood damage on treated CLT wall panels


2019Ex-situ performance of extracts from naturally durable heartwood species and their potential as wood preservatives


2019Field durability of treated and untreated CLT wall envelope systems


2019Guidelines for the selection and use of pressure-treated wood


2019Hurricane Michael ravages Florida test site


2019Improving exterior performance of thermally modified timber (TMT)


2019Laboratory immersion method for accelerated prediction of preservative leaching from pressure-treated wood exposed to precipitation


2019Leveraging GWAS data to identify metabolic pathways and networks involved in maize lipid biosynthesis


2019Ongoing termite studies on cross laminated timber (CLT) panels


2019Properties of composite wood panels fabricated from Eastern redcedar employing various bio-based green adhesives


2019Research needs assessment for the mass timber industry: Proceedings of the 2nd North American mass timber research needs workshop


2019Role of tyloses in the natural durability of a white oak species


2019SPC handbook for the treated wood industries


2019The life and work of Bruce Johnson at the Forest Products Laboratory and in the American Wood Protection Association


2019The use of boron rods as a boron source for dual treated timber


2019Toxicity potential of heartwood extractives from two mulberry species against Heterotermes indicola


2019Trap design, colors, and lures for emerald ash borer detection


2019Using metagenomics to quantify the bacterial diversity in field stakes treated with wood preservative


2019Utility of image software in quantification of termite damage on cross-laminated timber (CLT)


2018A protocol for implementing statistical process control in the treated wood industry


2018Above and in-ground performance of naturally-durable woods in Wisconsin


2018Antioxidant effects of four heartwood extractives on midgut enzyme activity in Heterotermes indicola (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae)


2018Assessment of fastener corrosion and salt damage in the bilge of the Eureka


2018Biogeochemical hotspots around bark-beetle killed trees


2018Carpenter ant-microbe interactions


2018Colemanite: a fire retardant candidate for wood plastic composites


2018Durability of cross laminated timber against termite damage


2018Durability of mass timber structures: a review of the biological risks


2018Dysbiosis: a potential novel strategy for control of subterranean termites


2018Effect of chitosan on diversity and number of protists in subterranean termites


2018Effects of Teak, Tectona grandis Linn, heartwood extractives against Heterotermes indicola (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)


2018Effects of White Mulberry (Morus alba) Heartwood Extract Against Reticulitermes flavipes (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae)


2018Evaluation of cross-laminated timber resistance to termite attack


2018Fungal–copper interactions in wood examined with large field of view synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy


2018Gene expression analysis of wood decay fungus Fibroporia Radiculosa grown In ACQ-treated wood


2018genome-wide association and metabolic pathway analysis of corn earworm resistance in maize


2018Guidelines to restoring structural integrity of covered bridge members


2018Hexadecyl ammonium chloride amylose inclusion complex to emulsify cedarwood oil and treat wood against termites and wood-decay fungi


2018Incising and site effects on long-term durability of pressure-treated refractory wood species


2018Increasing durability of mass timber products in interior applications


2018Indirect effects of bark beetle-generated dead wood on biogeochemical and decomposition processes in a pine forest


2018Industry-prioritized research, technology transfer, and education needs and opportunities in residential construction


2018Internal moisture content and temperature of standardized aboveground wood durability test specimens


2018Monitoring the cell wall characteristics of degraded beech wood by white-rot fungi: Anatomical, chemical, and photochemical study


2018Northeastern United States species treated with copper-based preservatives: Durability in mississippi stake tests


2018Ongoing field evaluation of Douglas-fir cross-laminated timber in a ground proximity protected test in Mississippi


2018Protecting log homes from decay and insects


2018Remote detection of termite activity in wooden bridge structures


2018Survey of candidate genes for maize resistance to infection by Aspergillus flavus and/or aflatoxin contamination


2018Termiticidal activity of chitosan against the subterranean termites Reticulitermes flavipes and Reticulitermes virginicus


2018USDA FS report: 80 years of termiticide testing


2018Wood decay fungi


2017Accelerated aging of preservative-treated structural plywood


2017Activity of two strobilurin fungicides against three species of decay fungi in agar plate tests


2017Amplicon-Based Sequencing of Soil Fungi from Wood Preservative Test Sites


2017Amplicon-based sequencing of soil fungi from wood preservative test sites


2017Analysis of hindgut bacterial phyla frequency and diversity in subterranean termites exposed to chitosan-treated wood


2017AWPA biodeterioration hazard map revisited


2017Characterization of the maize lipoxygenase gene family in relation to aflatoxin accumulation resistance


2017Comparison of performance criteria for evaluating stake test data


2017Comparison of performance of wood extractives as preservatives in field tests against termites and decay in the USA and Pakistan


2017Conifer species influence Heterobasidion irregulare sporulation on stem discs exposed to natural inoculum and root wood decay in soil-block tests


2017Defeating copper tolerance: an example of how “omics” research can accelerate discovery of new wood protection compounds


2017Diversity of Hindgut Bacterial Population in Subterranean Termite, Reticulitermes flavipes


2017Effect of landfill burial on condition of wood: preliminary tests


2017Effect of processing conditions on retention variability in treated lumber


Research Projects

Below are 17 research projects associated with this research unit.
Project NumberTitleProject Dates
FPL-4723-3-02A diverse range of species and small-diameter materials for treated wood applications

11-17-2003 - 11-17-2008

FPL-4723-2-02Environmental impact of treated forest products needs to be reduced

11-17-2003 - 11-17-2008

FPL-4723-1-01Fire safety engineering of forest products in a performance-based building code environment

09-20-2002 - 09-20-2007

FPL-4723-2-01Fire safety of engineered wood products in structural applications

09-20-2002 - 09-20-2007

FPL-4723-1-02Improved methods of evaluation and analysis for prediction of long term performance of durable forest products

11-17-2003 - 11-17-2008

FPL-4723-3AImproved wood treatments and accelerated performance methods for treated wood products

01-23-2015 - 01-22-2020

FPL-4723-3BImproved wood treatments that impart durability to treated wood products without adversely impacting the environment

10-01-2012 - 09-30-2017

FPL-4723-2Improving fire safety of forest products and wood-based structures to address our changing environmental and society needs for personal safety a

07-23-2007 - 07-23-2012

FPL-4723-2BImproving survivability and fire safety of forest products and wood-based structures while reducing the hazardous fuel load

10-01-2012 - 09-30-2017

FPL-4723-4New sharply targeted inhibitors are needed to protect wood products in service and prevent economic and resource losses that result from biodeter

07-23-2007 - 07-23-2012

FPL-4723-1BPerformance-Based Design of Residential and Nonresidential Wood Buildings

10-01-2012 - 09-30-2017

FPL-4723-1Proper design and operation of residential and nonresidential buildings can extend the service life of the building and wood products in th

07-23-2007 - 07-23-2012

FPL-4723-1ASharply targeted inhibitors to protect wood products in service and prevent economic and resource losses that result from biodeterioration

01-23-2015 - 01-22-2020

FPL-4723-4BSharply Targeted Inhibitors to Protect Wood Products in Service and Prevent Economic and Resource Losses that Result from Biodeterioration

10-01-2012 - 09-30-2017

FPL-4723-3-01Survivability of wood structures in the wildland urban interface

09-20-2002 - 09-20-2007

FPL-4723-2ATermites play dual roles as wood decomposers both benefiting forest health and causing destruction of in-service wood

01-23-2015 - 01-22-2020

FPL-4723-3There is a need for improved wood treatments that impart durability to wood products without adversely impacting the environment

07-23-2007 - 07-23-2012


fplPartnership Aiming for Faster Research Results

One major hurdle to durability research is the amount of time it takes to obtain results; studying materials in real-life, or in-service, scenarios can take years. To address this issue in one area of durability research, researchers at FPL and the University of Wisconsin are working together to develop methods that correlate in-service performance of metal fasteners and controlled corrosion experiments in wood. One step in developing this correlation is to understand how uncertainties in measurements affect the calculated corrosion rate in a controlled environment. The next step will be to compare metals immersed in a solution of preservative chemicals with corrosion of metals in contact with treated wood. The goal of this collaborative effort is to develop a qualitative test that mimics the corrosion behavior of metals in contact with treated wood without using actual wood specimens. Such a test would be of great value in rapidly evaluating the corrosiveness of new wood preservatives.

Lab Notes - FPL's online news feed

Below are the 10 most recent Lab Notes blog postings pertaining to this research unit.

TitleDate Posted
FPL Researcher Featured in Engineering News-Record

A rendering of the 25-story Ascent building currently under construction in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Photo credit: Korb + Associates Laura Hasburgh Building and Fire Sciences Materials Research Engineer Engineering News-Record recently featured ...
FPL Researcher Featured on National Public Radio

Brian BrashawForest Products Marketing UnitProgram Manager Forest Products Laboratory’s (FPL) Brian Brashaw was featured in an National Public Radio (NPR) segment about the soon-to-be world’s tallest timber building currently under constructi...
Throwback Thursday: The FPL Rotting Pit

Thanks to Grant Kirker for writing this fascinating look back into Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) history and science. Kirker is a Research Forest Products Technologist at FPL in the Durability and Wood Protection Research unit. Throughout ...
A Salty Tale of Wood Damage Research and Discovery

A tenacious fungus, a conspiracy theory, a historic ship, a unique gift from Princeton University, and two Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) researchers, Grant Kirker and Samuel Zelinka, collaborating with researchers from Germany and Canada all conv...
Searching for Natural Resistance through Infrared Spectroscopy

Closeup view of Western Junipier - By Syntheticmessiah - Durability is one of the most important building qualities needed for timber products. It is measured by how well wood species can resist fungal decay or insect damage. ...
Adhering to a New Standard of Excellence in Innovative Building Materials

CLT Construction - By Darryl Byle, It’s a sticky problem that Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) researcher Juliet Tang in collaboration with faculty member Hyungsuk Lim and graduate students from the Department of Sustainable Bio...
110 Years of FPL: Early Fire Retardant Treatments

In celebration of 110 years of research at the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), we are revisiting blog posts that detail some of our most interesting historic people, places, and projects. Enjoy! In the early days of developing fire-retardant tr...
International Collaboration and Competitive Rivalry Push FPL Scientists to Excellence

There was nothing earth-shattering found—though some hypotheses were discarded and new research launching points were identified. And that’s extremely important because science, research and development are not linear. Sometimes there isn’t a ...
Salvaging an American Icon with Ground-Penetrating Radar

Two Route 66 signs on the road at California Mojave desert highway – By AR Pictures Imagine being able to look straight into a wood beam and know its structural integrity. It’s almost like a super power, except its really just amazing scie...
There’s a Superhero Beneath Your Feet

Imagine a trail dipping below a steep valley edge surrounded by lush, verdant greens. A brook chatters below and in its soft watery tones invites hikers to a moment of relaxation and communion. The breeze is soft and sweet as the leaf canopy dan...