|Publication Year: 2019|
Highlight ID: 1325
|Mechanism for Diffusion through Wood Cell Walls|
Diffusion through unmodified wood cell walls is via a solid polymer diffusion mechanism, which refutes the previously accepted mechanism that diffusion occurs through aqueous pathways inside of the ce ...
|Publication Year: 2018|
Highlight ID: 1307
|Outdoor Strain Cycling Robot Reveals Key Durability Factors for Building Sealants|
Outdoor durability testing of building sealants by autonomous robot demonstrates advantages of summer over winter installation and the dominant role cyclic strain plays in property degradation. ...
Highlight ID: 1304
|Termite Resistance of Wood–Plastic Composites|
Wood-plastic composite (WPC) specimens were exposed to termites both in the laboratory and the field in Bogor, Indonesia. On a scale of 0 (complete failure) to 10 (sound), after 30 months field exposu ...
Highlight ID: 1311
|X-Ray Methods to Observe and Quantify Adhesive Penetration into Wood|
To accelerate development of new and improved wood adhesives for engineered wood products, researchers are working to understand the optimal adhesive penetration into wood for specific products and ap ...
|Publication Year: 2017|
Highlight ID: 1297
|Lignin coated cellulose nanocrystals Increase Shipment Temperature Strength and Allow Blown Film Production|
Wood based nanomaterials enable higher use temperatures, greater strength, and faster productions cycles of renewable plastic. ...
Highlight ID: 1282
|Scientists study how water changes wood|
Water causes a host of wood damage mechanisms such as mold, decay, fastener corrosion, and splitting. This research elucidates how water changes wood and leads to these wood damage mechanisms. ...
Highlight ID: 1269
|Soy adhesives resolve two problems at once|
Lower formaldehyde emission bonded wood products can be made using plant-based adhesives through an industry-government partnership. ...
Highlight ID: 1299
|Understanding how the organization and interactions of the atoms that compose wood control its mechanical properties|
To expand the uses and efficient utilization of wood, Forest Service researchers strive to learn how manipulate its molecular-scale structure to control its mechanical properties ...
|Publication Year: 2016|
Highlight ID: 664
|Improving Moisture Durability of Forest Products Using Small-angle Neutron Scattering|
Moisture is the underlying cause of numerous durability issues in forest products, including decay, lack of dimensional stability, and fastener corrosion. An improved understanding of where and how wa ...
Highlight ID: 661
|New Test of Raw Material Quality Improves the Strength of Wood Laminates|
Plywood and laminated veneer lumber are built from wood veneers. Because the test for surface quality of the veneer was not very useful, Forest Service scientists developed a quick, easy method that t ...
Highlight ID: 660
|Site-Selective Surface Modification of Cellulose Nanocrystals|
Forest Service researchers The hydrophilic surfaces of cellulose nanocrystals are synthetically converted to highly reactive functional groups. ...
Highlight ID: 666
|Using Soybeans to Replace Synthetic Adhesives for Wood Bonding|
Soybeans were used to glue the first plywood but were replaced by fossil-fuel-based adhesives after World War II. Scientists at the Forest Service's Forest Products Laboratory have helped soy adhesive ...
|Publication Year: 2015|
Highlight ID: 601
|Advancing Understanding of Wood Damage Mechanisms|
Forest Service researchers examined the diffusion of ions in wood using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy. The researchers found that there was a threshold moisture content below which ...
Highlight ID: 614
|Discovery of Cellulose Nanocrystals as Pot-life Stabilizers for Epoxy Coatings|
Waterborne epoxy coatings are high-value, sought-after environmentally friendly products in the coating industry mostly due to their ease of use, performance and low maintenance. Waterborne epoxy coat ...
Highlight ID: 612
|High-performance Cellulose Nanocrystal Polyolefin Composites are an Attractive Filler for Polymer Composites|
Nanocellulose-polypropylene and nanocellulose-polyethylene composites exhibited the greatest improvement ever reported for such composites made with unmodified cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). Therefore, ...
Highlight ID: 618
|How Does Wood Decay Start?|
How do fungi rot wood? Using new tools, fluorescent dye attached to tiny beads, and laser confocal microscopy, Forest Service scientists were able to follow oxidation on a microscopic level. The infor ...
|Publication Year: 2014|
Highlight ID: 588
|New Insight into Wood Damage Mechanisms|
Wood fails because bad things start to happen when wood gets wet. Dimensional stability, mold growth, fungal attack, fastener corrosion, all are caused by fluctuations in moisture or an abundance of m ...
|Publication Year: 2013|
Highlight ID: 449
|Ceramic-Like Thermal Expansion Obtained from Cellulose Nanocrystal Films|
One of the unique properties of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) are their low dimensional change with changes in temperature. Understanding the role and mechanism associated with thermal expansion within ...
Highlight ID: 447
|New Process Fabricates Efficient Reclyclable Solar Cells Using Natural Substrates|
Solar cells fabricated on optically transparent cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films reach a power conversion efficiency of 2.7 percent, an unprecedented figure for cells on substrates derived from renew ...
Highlight ID: 450
|Removing Organic Compounds from Water with Reusable Nanofiber Films|
Researchers produced films for water decontamination using cellulose nanofibers as a matrix material for the suspension of photocatalytic nano particles. ...
Highlight ID: 435
|Success of Wood Veneers Influenced by Harvesting Season and Temperature: Plywood Performance and Failure: A New Understanding|
Cooperation with Finnish researchers results in new understanding of relationships between veneer processing, veneer properties, and product failure. ...
|Publication Year: 2012|
Highlight ID: 1
|Do Not Blame Adhesives When Veneers Are Guilty|
Perfectly good adhesives may be wrongly discarded after failing a performance test when in actuality the veneer caused the failure. ...
|Publication Year: 2011|
Highlight ID: 301
Cellulose nanocrystals are ultra-small rod-like reinforcement material that can be extracted from trees, plants and some sea animals. This new technology has potential benefit to a variety of cellulos ...
Highlight ID: 290
|Developing tools to assess mechanical properties of wood cell walls|
Nanoindentation is a tool capable of probing mechanical properties at the sub-micrometer level, such as in wood cell walls, individual components in a wood-based composite, coatings, adhesive bondline ...
Highlight ID: 280
|Elucidating Covalent Bond Formation and Cleavage in Wood|
A new technique has been developed to monitor structural changes in the polymers present in wood cell walls. This allows researchers, for example, to look at how brown rot fungi attack lignin structur ...
Highlight ID: 305
|Lumen filling and sol-gel reinforcement of the wood cell wall|
FPL researchers used a two-prong strategy to enhance weathering properties of wood. This dual treatment showed promise in protecting wood against the combined effects of sunlight and moisture. ...
Highlight ID: 309
|Soy-based Adhesives for Wood Products|
Soy-based adhesives developed at FPL have been commercialized and allow wood manufacturers to replace adhesives based on fossil fuel with biomass-based adhesives. ...
|Publication Year: 2010|
Highlight ID: 191
|Cellulose Nanocrystals: Novel Templates for the Synthesis of Nanostructures|
Harvesting the properties of widely available natural biopolymers for the design of novel systems in nanobiotechnology has been largely ignored in favor of other biological molecules, such as proteins ...
Highlight ID: 170
|Centennial Edition, Wood Handbook—Wood as an Engineering Material|
The Wood Handbook—Wood as an Engineering Material serves as a primary reference document for a wide variety of users-from the general public through architects and design engineers who use wood ...
Highlight ID: 163
|Effects of Press Sizes on Internal Steam Pressure during Particleboard Hot-Pressing Process|
Internal steam pressure produced during the hot-pressing cycle in particleboard production is critical to the newly developed bond strength that will determine the overall performance of particleboard ...
Highlight ID: 173
|Elucidating Covalent Bond Formation and Cleavage in Wood|
Working with a group at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Department of Biochemistry, FPL researchers have discovered mechanistic details behind some long-standing theories of wood adhesion and bro ...
Highlight ID: 175
|Scale-up of cellulose nano material production|
There is considerable research internationally on cellulose nano-materials as reinforcement fibers for high strength composites. A persistent problem has been unavailability of cellulose nano-crystals ...
Highlight ID: 190
|Sol-gel technology to enhance performance properties of wood or wood fiber|
With support from industry partners, FPL researchers are developing new sol-gel technologies to enhance performance properties of wood or wood fiber. Sol-gel technologies are wet-chemical techniques t ...
Highlight ID: 172
|Soy-Based Adhesives Provide Wood Composites That Meet California Emission Standards|
Ashland- Hercules, working cooperatively with the Forest Products Laboratory, have developed these soy adhesives and have commercialized them for interior plywood, engineered wood flooring and particl ...
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Frihart, Charles R.
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|Program Support Assistant||608-231-9465|
Hunt, Christopher G.
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Ibach, Rebecca E.
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|Research Materials Engineer||608-231-9308|
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Moon, Robert J.
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|Materials Research Engineer||404-894-1026|
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|Physical Science Technician||608-231-9497|
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|Research Materials Engineer||608-231-9561|
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|Supervisory Research Materials Engineer||608-231-9412|
Yelle, Daniel J.
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|Research Forest Products Technologist||608-231-9359|
|Below are the 50 most recent products author or co-authored by researchers of this unit that have been posted, sorted by publication year and title. To access the complete repository of FPL products, click here.|
|Publication Year||Title||Date Posted|
|2020||Crystallization kinetics and morphology of small concentrations of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) melt-compounded into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with plasticizer||04/09/20|
|2019||Adhesive-wood interactions in relation to failure in bonded wood products from the centimeter to nanometer scale||03/30/20|
|2019||Biohybrid hydrogel and aerogel from self-assembled nanocellulose and nanochitin as a high-efficiency adsorbent for water purification||04/03/20|
|2019||Copper distribution and oxidation states near corroded fasteners in treated wood||04/12/19|
|2019||Effects of Moisture on Diffusion in Unmodified Wood Cell Walls: A Phenomenological Polymer Science Approach||03/16/20|
|2019||Fiberglass composite reinforcement with nanocellulose fiber sizing||10/01/19|
|2019||Freeze dried cellulose nanocrystal reinforced unsaturated polyester composites: challenges and potential||10/01/19|
|2019||Fully bio-based hybrid composites made of wood, fungal mycelium and cellulose nanofibrils||09/04/19|
|2019||Installing sealants for long service life||09/06/19|
|2019||Lightweight alternatives to glass fiber/epoxy sheet molding compound composites: a feasibility study||09/30/19|
|2019||Lignin containing cellulose nanofibril production from willow bark at 80â€‰Â°C using a highly recyclable acid hydrotrope||08/27/19|
|2019||Making Building Sealants Last||05/13/19|
|2019||Mechanism for diffusion through secondary cell walls in lignocellulosic biomass||09/26/19|
|2019||Melt spinning of cellulose nanofibril/polylactic acid (CNF/PLA) composite fibers for high stiffness||08/27/19|
|2019||On the experimental assessment of the molecular-scale interactions between wood and water||09/26/19|
|2019||Processing of hollow glass sphere/polyester/glass fiber sheet molding composites||10/01/19|
|2019||Quantifying cellulose accessibility during enzyme-mediated deconstruction using 2 fluorescence-tagged carbohydrate-binding modules||03/11/20|
|2019||Reactions of soy flour and soy protein by non-volatile aldehydes generation by specific oxidation||10/01/19|
|2019||Specific oxidants improve the wood bonding strength of soy and other plant flours||05/03/19|
|2019||The effect of cellulose nanocrystal coatings on the glass fiberâ€“epoxy interphase||09/06/19|
|2019||Using x-ray scattering to elucidate the mechanisms behind the moisture and fungal decay resistance of epoxybutene modified wood||08/30/19|
|2019||Wet-stacking lamination of multilayer mechanically fibrillated cellulose nanofibril (CNF) sheets with increased mechanical performance for use in high-strength and lightweight structural and packaging applications||09/26/19|
|2018||A continuum-based structural modeling approach for cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs)||03/29/18|
|2018||Acetylation increases relative humidity threshold for ion transport in wood cell walls â€“Â a means to understanding decay resistance||11/13/18|
|2018||Analysis of adhesive penetration into wood using nano-x-ray computed tomography||08/09/18|
|2018||Apparatus for gravimetric measurement of moisture sorption isotherms for 1-100 g samples in parallel||09/10/18|
|2018||Cellulose nanocrystals effect on the stabilization of polyacrylonitrile composite films||08/09/18|
|2018||Characterizing lignin in a fungus-cultivating termite||09/18/18|
|2018||Corrigendum: dry-spinning of cellulose nanocrystal/polylactic acid composite fibers||11/13/18|
|2018||Current characterization methods for cellulose nanomaterials||08/09/18|
|2018||Effects of aspect ratio and crystal orientation of cellulose nanocrystals on properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) composite fibers||09/27/18|
|2018||Effects of prestrain, outdoor aging, and simultaneous strain cycling on the durability of building sealants||08/09/18|
|2018||Effects of Teak, Tectona grandis Linn, heartwood extractives against Heterotermes indicola (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)||07/25/18|
|2018||Fungal lignin peroxidase does not produce the veratryl alcohol cation radical as a diffusible ligninolytic oxidant||07/26/18|
|2018||Fungalâ€“copper interactions in wood examined with large field of view synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy||07/26/18|
|2018||Improved methods for nanoindentation Berkovich probe calibrations using fused silica||07/26/18|
|2018||Individually dispersed gold nanoshell-bearing cellulose nanocrystals with tailorable plasmon resonance||08/09/18|
|2018||Integrating multiscale studies of adhesive penetration into wood||11/01/19|
|2018||Post-sulfonation of cellulose nanofibrils with a one-step reaction to improve dispersibility||03/29/18|
|2018||Production of high lignin-containing and lignin-free cellulose nanocrystals from wood||02/28/19|
|2018||Stable and durable wood products based on molecular modification||09/26/19|
|2018||Termite resistance of wood-plastic composites made with acetylated wood flour, coupling agent or zinc borate||07/26/18|
|2018||Toughening epoxy composites using nano and microcellulose modifiers||09/10/18|
|2018||Understanding wood bondsâ€“going beyond what meets the eye: a critical review||03/06/19|
|2018||Volatile organic compounds emissions from North American engineered wood products||08/23/19|
|2018||X-ray methods to observe and quantify adhesive penetration into wood||09/27/18|
|2017||Adhesives for Achieving Durable Bonds with Acetylated Wood||03/29/18|
|2017||Advanced analysis tools and programs to accelerate the adoption of more natural structures||10/06/17|
|2017||Cellulose nanomaterials as additives for cementitious materials||12/22/17|
|2017||Coaxing soy adhesives into living up to their potential||04/10/18|
|2017||Effect of weight percent gain and experimental method on fiber saturation point of acetylated wood determined by differential scanning calorimetry||07/17/18|
|2017||Exploring the hypothesis that limiting diffusion of fungal oxidants underlies decay resistance in acetylated wood||10/06/17|
|2017||Homogeneous and toughened cellulose epoxy composites||10/05/17|
|2017||Improved understanding of moisture effects on outdoor woodâ€“adhesive bondlines||07/05/17|
|2017||Influence of high loading of cellulose nanocrystals in polyacrylonitrile composite films||04/26/17|
|2017||Influence of hot water extraction on cell wall and OSB strand mechanics||08/31/18|
|2017||Integrating multi-scale studies of adhesive penetration into wood||07/17/18|
|2017||Laboratory and environmental decay of woodâ€“plastic composite boards: flexural properties||06/28/17|
|2017||Lightweight sheet molding compound (SMC) composites containing cellulose nanocrystals||10/06/17|
|2017||Lignocellulose pretreatment in a fungus-cultivating termite||10/06/17|
|2017||Long term durability of wood-plastic composites made with chemically modified wood||09/27/17|
|2017||Neutron scattering studies of nano-scale wood-water interactions||04/10/18|
|2017||Penetration of n-hexadecane and water into wood under conditions simulating catastrophic floods||10/06/17|
|2017||Rapid and near-complete dissolution of wood lignin at â‰¤80Â°C by a recyclable acid hydrotrope||09/27/17|
|2017||Rheological and thermo-mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid)/lignin-coated cellulose nanocrystal composites||04/25/17|
|2017||Simulating biomass fast pyrolysis at the single particle scale||08/31/18|
|2017||Site selective modification of cellulose nanocrystals with isocyanate for adhesion applications||04/25/17|
|2017||Size dependence of nanoscale wear of silicon carbide||10/06/17|
|2017||Small angle neutron scattering as a tool to evaluate moisture-induced swelling in the nanostructure of chemically modified wood cell walls||04/10/18|
|2017||Small-angle neutron scattering as a new tool to evaluate moisture-induced swelling in the nanostructure of chemically modified wood cell walls||10/02/19|
|2017||Solution-state NMR analysis of hydroxymethylated resorcinol cured in the presence of crude milled-wood lignin from Acer saccharum||09/19/17|
|2017||Synchrotron based x-ray fluorescence microscopy confirms copper in the corrosion products of metals in contact with treated wood||06/07/17|
|2017||Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy enables multiscale spatial visualization of ions involved in fungal lignocellulose deconstruction||03/01/17|
|2017||The impact of log heating on veneer quality and plywood performance||10/05/17|
|2017||The use of new, aqueous chemical wood modifications to improve the durability of wood-plastic composites||07/05/17|
|2017||Variation of nanostructures, molecular interactions, and anisotropic elastic moduli of lignocellulosic cell walls with moisture||10/06/17|
|2017||Volatile organic compound emissions from engineered wood products||01/25/18|
|2016||A comparative guide to controlled hydrophobization of cellulose nanocrystals via surface esterification||09/07/16|
|2016||A solution thermodynamics definition of the fiber saturation point and the derivation of a wood-water phase (state) diagram||10/04/16|
|2016||Acridine Orange Indicates Early Oxidation of Wood Cell Walls by Fungi||09/07/16|
|2016||Adhesive Penetration of Wood and Its Effect on Bond Strength||05/03/16|
|2016||Bondability of ipĂŞ (Tabebuia spp.) wood using ambient-curing exterior wood adhesives||03/08/17|
|2016||Cell wall domain and moisture content influence southern pineÂ electrical conductivity||09/15/16|
|2016||Cellulose nanocrystal reinforced epoxy coatings||10/05/16|
|2016||Characterizing phenolformaldehyde adhesive cure chemistry within the wood cell wall||07/13/16|
|2016||Cohesion and Adhesion with Proteins||05/03/16|
|2016||Corrosion of metals in treated wood examined by synchrotron based xanes and XFM||10/04/16|
|2016||Directed plant cell-wall accumulation of iron: embedding co-catalyst for efficient biomass conversion||10/06/17|
|2016||Distribution and oxidation state of copper in the cell walls of treated wood examined by synchrotron based XANES and XFM||03/27/17|
|2016||Effect of log soaking and the temperature of peeling on the properties of rotary-cut birch (Betula pendula Roth) veneer bonded with phenol-formaldehyde adhesive||09/21/16|
|2016||Exterior Decay of Wood-Plastic Composite Boards: Characterization and Magnetic Resonance Imaging||09/15/15|
|2016||Factors that lead to failure with wood adhesive bonds||02/06/17|
|2016||Formulation and characterization of polysaccharide beads for controlled release of plant growth regulators||05/03/16|
|2016||From the lab to commercial reality with biobased adhesives for wood||02/02/17|
|2016||High bonding temperatures greatly improve soy adhesive wet strength||02/02/17|
|2016||Improving the interfacial and mechanical properties of short glass fiber/epoxy composites by coating the glass fibers with cellulose nanocrystals||05/13/16|
|2016||Influence of anatomical, physical, and mechanical properties of diffuse-porous hardwoods on moisture durability of bonded assemblies||09/22/16|
|2016||Informing the improvement of forest products durability using small angle neutron scattering||10/04/16|
|2016||Introducing cellulose nanocrystals in sheet molding compounds (SMC)||08/30/16|
|Below are 9 research projects associated with this research unit.|
|Project Number||Title||Project Dates|
|FPL-4707-2B||Cell Wall Science & Technology||10-01-2012 - 09-30-2019|
|FPL-4707-2||Chemical modification of wood for improved water repellency||07-26-2004 - 07-26-2009|
|FPL-4707-2A||Developing advanced composites through chemical modification of biomaterials||08-24-2007 - 08-23-2012|
|FPL-4707-3A||Developing advanced materials through property enhancement at nano- and micro- dimensions||08-24-2007 - 08-23-2012|
|FPL-4707-1A||Developing and testing new materials for advanced structures||08-24-2007 - 08-23-2012|
|FPL-4707-3B||Nanoscale Processing and Properties||10-01-2012 - 09-30-2019|
|FPL-4707-1B||Product Performance||10-01-2012 - 09-30-2019|
|FPL-4707-3||Surface chemistry of wood composites||07-26-2004 - 07-26-2009|
|FPL-4707-1||Weathering mechanisms and service life prediction of wood and wood-based products||07-26-2004 - 07-26-2009|
|Ongoing Collaboration Leads to Success for Adhesives Research|
Adhesives are only a small part of wood composites by weight but are a substantial part of the cost. Increasing petroleum prices have stimulated commercial interest in using soybean flour for bonding wood products instead of the traditionally used petroleum-based phenol-formaldehyde. Based on this interest, a partnership was formed between the Forest Products Laboratory and Heartland Resource Technologies in 2004, and a technology was jointly developed that uses up to 75% soybean flour in the adhesive.
Xethanol Corporation, an ethanol producer with facilities in Iowa, acquired licensing rights to a patented process developed by FPL and the University of Wisconsin and signed a cooperative research and development agreement to solidify the partnership. The patented process aids in the conversion of xylose, a sugar found in waste biomass and corn fiber, to ethanol and xylitol, a sweetener used in food processing.
The research was initially aimed at replacing part of the existing adhesive for oriented strandboard. However, the success of the laboratory work, including the issuance of several patents, has led to the pursuit of additional applications, including plywood and molded wood products. Research moved from mainly laboratory work to a mixture of laboratory studies and plant trials.
The success of this work is further illustrated by the creation of a new research and development venture in 2007 called H2H Innovations, which is the result of Heartland Resource Technologies joining forces with Hercules Incorporated. H2H Innovations plans to leverage existing soy-based adhesive technologies from both companies to accelerate the development of new adhesive products for the wood products industry.
Below are the 9 most recent Lab Notes blog postings pertaining to this research unit.
|Better Adhesives Mean Stronger, Cheaper Wood Products|
(This article was originally posted on Inside the Forest Service.) As great as engineered woodâ€”such as plywood or particle boardâ€”is for a range of building and manufacturing uses, it has its limitations, especially in outdoor applications. O...
|A Golden Achievement|
Linda Lorenz, a chemist at the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), is celebrating an incredible 50 years of service to the Federal government this year. Amazingly, every one of those years was spent right here at the Lab...
|Cellulose Nanocrystals as Filler for Polymers|
In a new publication, Supervisory Research Materials Engineer Gregory T. Schueneman reports on his research with cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). CNCs are a class of renewable bionanomaterials with excellent mechanical properties that have attracted in...
|Set Free the Cellulose!|
As the most abundant biopolymers on earth, cellulose and lignin form the building blocks for trees and other plants. For centuries the durable, renewable benefits of wood have helped provide shelter and energy for people across the globe.Â Using tree...
|Soy Proteins as Wood Adhesives|
Protein-based adhesives have a long and ingenious history. Animal protein, casein from milk, soy flour, and even blood have historically been used as bonding agents for wood product applications. These proteins have allowed for the development of bon...
|Biological Properties of Wood|
Rebecca Ibach, research chemist at FPL,Â has written a chapter for the new edition of the Handbook of Wood Chemistry and Wood Composites (2nd ed., 2013) titled Biological Properties of Wood...
|Wood Water Filter Design Wins Regional Competition|
A team of engineering students from the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) took first place in a recent American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) competition with a bit of guidance from FPL Research Chemist Mandla Tshabalala...
|Jakes Honored with Early Career Scientist Award|
FPL researcher Joseph Jakes has been selected to receive the 2011 Forest Service Research and Development Deputy Chiefâ€™s Early Career Scientist Award...
|New Wood Product Launched with Help from FPL|
With its more than 100 years of research on record, people often look to the FPL for answers when new questions about wood products arise. So FPL researchers were up to the challenge when Eastman Chemical Company approached them during the developmen...