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Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53726-2398
Phone: (608) 231-9200
Fax: (608) 231-9592
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Engineered Composites Science

Project Title :  Understand the characteristics and interactions of raw materials and use this knowledge to optimize composite process and performance
Project Number : FPL-4706-1B
Status : NEW
Start Date : 10-01-2012
End Date : 09-30-2019


View the 76 publications associated with this project.

Zhiyong CaiPrincipal Investigator:
Zhiyong Cai

Non Technical Summary
There are a great variety of raw material sources for alternative composite products. Forest biomass on National Forest lands in much of the western U.S., for example, has increased substantially. This biomass buildup is primarily due to excess growth over harvest and the exclusion of fire, and has resulted in overcrowded, overstocked stands of small-diameter and standing dead trees and other types of fiber resources. This biomass buildup leads to an unhealthy forest condition with increasing losses to insects, diseases, and catastrophic wildfires. These conditions can drastically alter the existing forest eco-system, including timber and wildlife diversity and dramatically affect the quality of life for humans at the wildland-urban interface. Returning fire to these ecosystems is often times not feasible because of excessive fuel buildup that precludes prescripted burning or because of concerns about air quality, safety and property damage. Because of the existence of many raw material and processing options, there is a fundamental need to understand, characterize, predict, and correlate composite performance based on constituent properties and availability of raw materials and their morphological and processing considerations. Thus, we must first understand the characteristics and interactions of raw materials and use this knowledge to optimize composite processing and performance.


Objectives Summary
A. Expand the understanding of how processing changes the chemical and physical properties of composite raw materials. B. Determine which tools and characterization techniques are best suited for evaluating the properties of composite raw materials.C. Develop composite processing methodologies that best use constituent materials.D. Develop models relating materials, processing, and performance.


Approach Summary
A. Expand the understanding of how processing changes the chemical and physical properties of composite raw materials:1) Determine the effects of processing conditions on the morphology and properties of cellulose nanofibers and their composites.2) Evaluate characteristics of lignin as a residual material and relate characteristics to the process from which it was derived.3) Characterize the small diameter and other forest thinning materials and engineer them into forms suitable for composites.B. Determine which tools and characterization techniques are best suited for evaluating the properties of composite raw materials:1) Develop new ways to use FTIR microscopy to map composite surface characteristics.2) Use FT- NIR spectroscopy to correlate possible chemical interactions with performance properties.3) Determine which tools and characterization techniques are best suited for evaluating the properties of cellulose nanofibers.4) Evaluate methods to best characterize fiber geometry and distribution for pulp molding.C. Develop composite processing methodologies that best use constituent materials:1) Evaluate methods of converting cellulose nanofibers into forms suitable for reinforcing polymers.2) Develop processing methods that modify raw material characteristics in order to optimize wet-formed composite performance.3) Develop novel surface treatments of wood fibers to improve the performance of wood-plastic composites.4) Use advanced process technologies (e.g., co-extrusion and supercritical fluid processing) to improve manufacturing processes and performance of wood-polymer composites.5) Optimize the nano-/micro-structure and morphology (e.g., nanocellulose orientation) of cellulose nanocomposites.D. Develop models relating materials, processing, and performance:1) Model the heat and moisture gradient within the panel during hot-pressing.2) Develop models to correlate material selection and construction configurations to the performance of light-weight 3D engineered composites.

Publications associated with this Project

Publication YearTitleDate Posted
2013A comparative study of cellulose nanofibrils disintegrated via multiple processing approaches08/02/13
2016Aldehyde-functionalized porous nanocellulose for effective removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions10/06/17
2017Aligned nanocomposites from cellulose nanocrystals by electrospinning with a soluble polymer followed by thermoset impregnation03/30/17
2015Analysis of Cantilever-Beam Bending Stress Relaxation Properties of Thin Wood Composites09/15/15
2017Assessing multi-scale deconstruction of wood cell wall subjected to mechanical milling for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis02/22/19
2013Bending analyses for 3D engineered structural panels made from laminated paper and carbon fabric08/16/13
2017Blown film extrusion of poly(lactic acid) without melt strength enhancers02/13/18
2013Cantilever Beam Static and Dynamic Response Comparison with Mid-Point Bending for Thin MDF composite Panels05/14/13
2018Catalytic graphitization of kraft lignin to graphene-based structures with four different transitional metals10/01/19
2014Cellulose nanofiber-templated three-dimension TiO 2 hierarchical nanowire network for photoelectrochemical photoanode11/03/16
2015Cellulose nanofibril/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogels for highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitors11/22/16
2013Chapter 1.4: Spatially Resolved Characterization of CNC-Polypropylene composite by Confocal Raman Microscopy09/13/13
2015Chapter 15: Characterization and Processing of Nanocellulose Thermosetting Composites04/01/15
2017Characterization of micronized wood and energy-size relationship in wood comminution02/22/19
2016Characterizations of biodegradable epoxy-coated cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) thin film for flexible microwave applications10/06/17
2017Chemical modification of nanocellulose with canola oil fatty acid methyl ester09/05/17
2018Coir fibers as valuable raw material for biofuel pellet production08/31/18
2013Color and surface chemistry changes of extracted wood flour after heating at 120 °C02/24/14
2014Color and Surface Chemistry Changes of Pine Wood Flour after Extraction and Delignification08/04/14
2013Comparative Properties of Bamboo and Rice Straw Pellets01/20/15
2013Comparative study of cellulose nanofibrils Disintegrated from different Approaches06/28/13
2014Comparison of bamboo green, timber and yellow in sulfite, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide pretreatments for enzymatic saccharification09/22/14
2015Comparison of Compounding Approaches for Wood-Derived Cellulose Nanocrystals and Polyamide 605/26/15
2013Detection and analysis of the stress relaxation properties of thin wood composites using cantilever-beam bending10/24/13
2013Effect of environmental conditions on the mechanical properties and fungal degradation of polycaprolactone/microcrystalline cellulose/wood flour composites06/27/13
2018Effect of freeze-drying on the morphology of dried cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and tensile properties of poly(lactic) acid-CNC composites08/27/18
2015Effect of Hot-Pressing Temperature on the Subsequent Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation Performance of SPORL Pretreated Forest Biomass04/01/15
2012Effect of Moisture Sorption State on Vibrational Properties of Wood01/14/13
2016Effect of the particle geometry and adhesive mass percentage on the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made from peanut hull08/29/18
2012Effective of Microwave-KOH Pretreatment on Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Bamboo01/20/15
2013Effects of carbonization conditions on properties of bamboo pellets10/01/14
2012Ethanosolv Pretreatment of Bamboo with Dilute Acid for Efficient Enzymatic Saccharification01/20/15
2018Fabrication and characterization of cellulose nanofibrils/epoxy nanocomposite foam08/16/19
2019Fabrication and characterization of emulsified and freeze-dried epoxy/cellulose nanofibril nanocomposite foam08/30/19
2018Facile fabrication of 100% bio-based and degradable ternary cellulose/PHBV/PLA composites10/01/19
2015Formation of Irreversible H-bonds in Cellulose Materials09/25/15
2014Formation of nanocarbon spheres by thermal treatment of woody char from fast pyrolysis process11/08/16
2015Grafting of Bacterial Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) onto Cellulose via In Situ Reactive Extrusion with Dicumyl Peroxide05/27/15
2018Green esterification: a new approach to improve thermal and mechanical properties of poly(lactic acid) composites reinforced by cellulose nanocrystals10/02/19
2016High-density platinum nanoparticle-decorated titanium dioxide nanofiber networks for efficient capillary photocatalytic hydrogen generation10/06/17
2018Highly porous polymer aerogel film-based triboelectric nanogenerators09/28/18
2018Increased sugar yield from pre-milled Douglas-fir forest residuals with lower energy consumption by using planetary ball milling09/27/18
2013Influence of a stabilized cap layer on the photodegradation of coextruded high density polyethylene/woodflour composites08/04/14
2013Influence of drying method on the material properties of nanocellulose I: thermostability and crystallinity09/20/13
2013Influence of drying method on the surface energy of cellulose nanofibrils determined by inverse gas chromatography08/05/13
2015Interfacial improvements in biocomposites based on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) bioplastics reinforced and grafted with α-cellulose fibers09/22/16
2013Lignin-based Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins from Purified CO2 Precipitated Kraft lignin (PCO2KL)10/17/14
2013Lignin-based Phenol-Formalehyde Resins from Purified CO2 Precipitated Kraft Lignin (PCO2KL)09/26/14
2014Maleic anhydride polypropylene modified cellulose nanofibril polypropylene nanocomposites with enhanced impact strength09/23/16
2016Mechanical characterization of scalable cellulose nano-fiber based composites made using liquid composite molding process09/26/16
2013Mechanical properties of moso bamboo treated with chemical agents08/15/13
2017Microstructure change in wood cell wall fracture from mechanical pretreatment and its influence on enzymatic hydrolysis10/06/17
2017Modeling the production of sugar and byproducts from acid bisulfite pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of Douglas-fir08/31/18
2016Modification of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) for use in poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-CNC composite packaging products09/30/16
2016Nanocellulose in spun continuous fibers: A review and future outlook12/20/16
2012Nanocelluloses: Potential Materials for Advanced Forest Products, Proceedings of Nanotechnology in Wood Composites Symposium10/25/12
2017Nanofibrillated cellulose from appalachian hardwoods logging residues as template for antimicrobial copper08/30/17
2017Performance of poly(lactic acid)/ cellulose nanocrystal composite blown films processed by two different compounding approaches02/15/19
2019PHBV-graft-GMA via reactive extrusion and its use in PHBV/nanocellulose crystal composites09/27/19
2015Photomechanical stress analysis of cellulosic-manure composites09/25/15
2017Preparation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from the bio-ethanol residuals10/06/17
2017Preparation and characterization of the nanocomposites from chemically modified nanocellulose and poly(lactic acid)04/09/18
2015Preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials from mountain pine beetle-killed pine wood09/26/16
2013Primary properties of MDF using thermomechanical pulp made from oxalic acid pretreated rice straw particles04/30/15
2015Production of cellulose nanofibrils from bleached eucalyptus fibers by hyperthermostable endoglucanase treatment and subsequent microfluidization02/11/15
2017Size effects on acid bisulfite pretreatment efficiency: multiple product yields in spent liquor and enzymatic digestibility of pretreated solids10/06/17
2016Stresses and strains in thick perforated orthotropic plates03/20/17
2015Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanospheres obtained by hydrothermal carbonization of wood-derived and other saccharides09/26/16
2016Techniques for characterizing lignin09/22/16
2012The vibrational properties of Chinese fir wood during moisture sorption process10/17/14
2013Thermal Properties of Extracted and Delignified Wood Flour for use in Wood-Plastic Composites09/20/13
2017Vertical density profile and internal bond strength of wet-formed particleboard bonded with cellulose nanofibrils10/05/17
2018Water based esterification of cellulose nanofibrils for compounding with PLA09/10/18
2018Water vapor and oxygen barrier properties of extrusion-blown poly(lactic acid)/cellulose nanocrystals nanocomposite films09/26/19
2016Water-assisted compounding of cellulose nanocrystals into polyamide 6 for use as a nucleating agent for microcellular foaming05/04/16
2010Wood-Adhesive Bonding Failure: Modeling and Simulation11/26/10

Project Summaries last modified: 08-22-2018