Banner for LabNotes
From Lab Notes
Contact Information
Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53726-2398
Phone: (608) 231-9200
Fax: (608) 231-9592
Email

 

You are here: FPL Home  / Information Products & Services  / Publications

Requested Product

Title: Summative and ultimate analysis of live leaves from southern U.S. forest plants for use in fire modeling

Source: Energy & Fuels. 34(4): 4703-4720.

Author(s)Matt, Frederick J.; Dietenberger, Mark A.; Weise, David R.

Publication Year: 2020  View PDF »

Category: Journal Articles
Associated Research Project(s):   FPL-4716-2A

Abstract: Laboratory-derived composition and pyrolysis data are essential inputs for the modeling of fire behavior. Recently, fire research has focused on live fuels including living wood and leaves, which exhibit sharp differences in moisture levels and chemical composition as compared to dead fuels. These leaf components have fuel properties that function in the spread of wildfire and must be considered in order to produce nuanced predictive models that reflect real life conditions. The goal of this study was to assemble a suite of methods that would achieve summative mass closure for analysis of live leaves from 12 tree and plant species from the southeastern United States (consisting of broadleaves, conifers, grasses, and palmettos). Most of the procedures used were adapted from standard methods commonly used for biomass analysis at the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL), National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL), and others. A mass closure (aka mass balance) of 95 to 100% was achieved for 10 of the 12 species the other 2 were both 91%. This required measuring of 12 parameters which are lipids, nonstructural sugars, protein, pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose, starch, phenol, structural lignin, silicates, and minerals. When burned, these components span a wide range of pyrolysis temperatures from 70 to 600 °C, posing a challenge for pyrolysis measurements. Observable differences in leaf composition were noted within groups of plant types as well as between themwith grasses being most similar and palmettos being most dissimilar. A rigorous statistical analysis was out of the scope of this study (involving analysis of 12 matrices of 12 plants); instead, validated standard analytical protocols (with known % error) were used in most cases. These error percentages (and sources) are reported with data presented in this study. The overriding goal of reaching summative mass closure (for all plant species) was however achieved, serving as a validation of the reported methodology for use in pyrolysis modeling. To predict the ultimate analysis data for leaf elemental composition and the heat of combustion, the empirical formula for each components was identified to provide for summation over all components. A formula for heat of combustion based on the oxygen consumption principle was found to be adequate to within 4% error.

Keywords: Summative and ultimate analysis; organic combustion properties; southern US forest plants; live leaves properties

Publication Review Process: Formally Refereed

File size: 8,192 kb(s)

Date posted: 06/01/2020

This publication is also viewable on Treesearch:  view
RITS Product ID: 97921
Current FPL Scientist associated with this product
Dietenberger, Mark A.
Research General Engineer
  

Additional items that might interest you
View the video celebrating FPL's 100 years of public service in 2010, from the producers of the Greatest Good....view

Research Highlights from FPL....view

Termite Eradication: A search for the Holy Grail.... view

Moisture Management in Residential Construction Series videos...view

Wood Floor Systems in Residential Construction Series videos....view
- FPL's Mission and Strategic Plan -

FPL's mission is to identify and conduct innovative wood and fiber utilization research that contributes to conservation and productivity of the forest resource, thereby sustaining forests, the economy, and quality of life. ... ..more »

- FPL Research Emphasis Areas -
Advanced Composites

As an integral part of the FPL mission, we improve the long-term sustainability of our Nation's forests by creating valuable composite products from biobased materials ... ..more »


Advanced Structures

The FPL has been in the forefront of wood-frame housing research since 1910 and has long been recognized as a world leader in such housing-related areas as engineered wood ... ..more »


Forest Biorefinery

We all know the compelling reasons that the United States needs to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. Historically, the greatest increases in energy demand have been for transportation fuels ... ..more »


Nanotechnology

A leader in wood products research for over a century, the FPL is positioning itself to become the lead Federal research facility for the application of nanotechnology in forest products ... more »


Woody Biomass Utilization

Forests in the United States contain a substantial amount of small-diameter, overstocked, and underutilized material.FPL research projects are exploring the potential of the small-diameter ... ..more »