Banner for LabNotes
From Lab Notes
Contact Information
Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53726-2398
Phone: (608) 231-9200
Fax: (608) 231-9592
Email

 

You are here: FPL Home  / Information Products & Services  / Publications

Requested Product

Title: Catalytic graphitization of kraft lignin to graphene-based structures with four different transitional metals

Source: Journal of Nanoparticle Research. 20(9). 20 p.

Author(s)Yan, Qiangu ; Li, Jinghao ; Zhang, Xuefeng ; Hassan, El Barbary; Wang, Chuji ; Zhang, Jilei ; Cai, Zhiyong

Publication Year: 2018  View PDF »

Category: Journal Articles
Associated Research Project(s):   FPL-4706-1B

Abstract: Catalytic graphitization of kraft lignin to nano-materials was investigated over four transitional metal catalysts (Ni, Cu, Fe, and Mo) through a thermal treatment process under an argon flow at 1000 °C. The catalytic thermal process was examined using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature-programmed decomposition (TPD) experiments. The crystal structure and morphology of the thermal-treated metal-lignin samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Catalytic graphitization of kraft lignin to nano-materials was investigated over four transitional metal catalysts (Ni, Cu, Fe, and Mo) through a catalytic thermal treatment process. It was observed that multi-layer graphene-encapsulated metal nanoparticles were the main products, beside along with some graphene sheets/flakes. The particle sizes and graphene shell layers were significantly affected by the promoted metals. BET surface areas of samples obtained from different metal precursors were in the range of 88–115 m2/g within the order of Ni-> Fe-> Mo-> Cu-. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature-programmed decomposition (TPD) experimental results showed that adding transitional metals could promote the decomposition and carbonization of kraft lignin. The catalytic activity increasedwithanorder of Mo≅Cu < Ni≅Fe. XRD results show that face-centered cubic (fcc) Cu crystals is formed in the thermal-treated Cu-lignin sample, fcc nickel phase for the Ni-lignin sample, βMo2C hexagonal phase for the Mo-lignin sample and α-Fe, γ-iron, and cementite (Fe3C) for the Felignin sample. Average particle sizes of these crystal phases calculated using the Scherrer formula are 52.4 nm, 56.2 nm, 21.0 nm, 23.3 nm, 11.3 nm, and 32.8 nm for Ni, Cu, β-Mo2C, α-Fe, γ-iron, and Fe3C, respectively. Raman results prove that the graphitization activity of these four metals is in the order of Cu < Mo < Ni < Fe. Metal properties such as catalytic activity, carbon solubility, and tendency of metal carbide formation were related to the graphene-based structure formation during catalytic graphitization of kraft lignin process.

Keywords: Kraft lignin; catalytic graphitization; transitional metals; multi-layer graphene-encapsulated metal nanoparticles; graphene sheets/flakes

Publication Review Process: Formally Refereed

File size: 1,024 kb(s)

Date posted: 10/01/2019

This publication is also viewable on Treesearch:  view
RITS Product ID: 96277
Current FPL Scientist associated with this product
Cai, Zhiyong
Supervisory Research Materials Engineer
  

Additional items that might interest you
View the video celebrating FPL's 100 years of public service in 2010, from the producers of the Greatest Good....view

Research Highlights from FPL....view

Termite Eradication: A search for the Holy Grail.... view

Moisture Management in Residential Construction Series videos...view

Wood Floor Systems in Residential Construction Series videos....view
- FPL's Mission and Strategic Plan -

FPL's mission is to identify and conduct innovative wood and fiber utilization research that contributes to conservation and productivity of the forest resource, thereby sustaining forests, the economy, and quality of life. ... ..more »

- FPL Research Emphasis Areas -
Advanced Composites

As an integral part of the FPL mission, we improve the long-term sustainability of our Nation's forests by creating valuable composite products from biobased materials ... ..more »


Advanced Structures

The FPL has been in the forefront of wood-frame housing research since 1910 and has long been recognized as a world leader in such housing-related areas as engineered wood ... ..more »


Forest Biorefinery

We all know the compelling reasons that the United States needs to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. Historically, the greatest increases in energy demand have been for transportation fuels ... ..more »


Nanotechnology

A leader in wood products research for over a century, the FPL is positioning itself to become the lead Federal research facility for the application of nanotechnology in forest products ... more »


Woody Biomass Utilization

Forests in the United States contain a substantial amount of small-diameter, overstocked, and underutilized material.FPL research projects are exploring the potential of the small-diameter ... ..more »