Banner for LabNotes
From Lab Notes
Contact Information
Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53726-2398
Phone: (608) 231-9200
Fax: (608) 231-9592


You are here: FPL Home  / Information Products & Services  / Publications

Requested Product

Title: Defect detection and quality assessment of hardwood logs: part 1—acoustic impact test and wavelet analysis

Source: Wood and Fiber Science. 50(3): 291-309.

Author(s)Xu, Feng ; Wang, Xiping ; Thomas, Ed ; Liu, Yunfei ; Brashaw, Brian K.; Ross, Robert J.

Publication Year: 2018  View PDF »

Category: Journal Articles
Associated Research Project(s):   FPL-4714-1B

Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the technical feasibility of combining acousticwave data with high-resolution laser scanning data to improve the accuracy of defect detection and quality assessment in hardwood logs. This article (Part 1) focused on exploring the potential of an acoustic impact testing method coupled with advanced waveform analysis to detect internal decay of hardwood logs and classify logs in terms of log quality and potential board grade yields. Twenty-one yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera)logs obtained from the Central Appalachian region were evaluated for internal soundness using an acoustic impact testing technique. These logs were then sawn into boards, and the boards were visually graded based on National Hardwood Lumber Association grading rules. The response signals of the logs from acoustic impact tests were analyzed through moment analysis and continuous wavelet transform to extract time-domain and frequency-domain parameters. The results indicated that the acoustic impact test coupled with wavelet analysis is a viable method to evaluate the internal soundness of hardwood logs. Log acoustic velocity alone was able to identify the very low-end logs that have the most severe internal rot or other unsound defects but failed to identify the logs with poor geometry that resulted in very low recovery. Time centroid, damping ratio, and combined time-and frequency-domain parameters were found effective in predicting log quality in terms of board grade yields. Log segregation based on time-domain (time centroid and ρ/Tc2) and frequency-domain (damping ratio and Ed2) parameters showed a positive correlation with the board grade yields.

Keywords: Acoustic velocity; board grade; damping ratio; impact test; log defects; dynamic MOE; time centroid; yellow-poplar

Publication Review Process: Formally Refereed

File size: 1,024 kb(s)

Date posted: 08/14/2018

This publication is also viewable on Treesearch:  view
RITS Product ID: 91110
Current FPL Scientists associated with this product (listed alphabetically)
Ross, Robert J.
Supervisory Research Gen. Engineer
Wang, Xiping
Research Forest Products Technologist

Additional items that might interest you
View the video celebrating FPL's 100 years of public service in 2010, from the producers of the Greatest Good....view

Research Highlights from FPL....view

Termite Eradication: A search for the Holy Grail.... view

Moisture Management in Residential Construction Series videos...view

Wood Floor Systems in Residential Construction Series videos....view
- FPL's Mission and Strategic Plan -

FPL's mission is to identify and conduct innovative wood and fiber utilization research that contributes to conservation and productivity of the forest resource, thereby sustaining forests, the economy, and quality of life. ... ..more »

- FPL Research Emphasis Areas -
Advanced Composites

As an integral part of the FPL mission, we improve the long-term sustainability of our Nation's forests by creating valuable composite products from biobased materials ... ..more »

Advanced Structures

The FPL has been in the forefront of wood-frame housing research since 1910 and has long been recognized as a world leader in such housing-related areas as engineered wood ... ..more »

Forest Biorefinery

We all know the compelling reasons that the United States needs to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. Historically, the greatest increases in energy demand have been for transportation fuels ... ..more »


A leader in wood products research for over a century, the FPL is positioning itself to become the lead Federal research facility for the application of nanotechnology in forest products ... more »

Woody Biomass Utilization

Forests in the United States contain a substantial amount of small-diameter, overstocked, and underutilized material.FPL research projects are exploring the potential of the small-diameter ... ..more »