Banner for LabNotes
From Lab Notes
Contact Information
Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53726-2398
Phone: (608) 231-9200
Fax: (608) 231-9592


You are here: FPL Home  / Information Products & Services  / Publications

Requested Product

Title: Acoustic Evaluation of Thinning and Biosolid Fertilization Effects on Wood Quality of a Douglas-fir stand

Source: USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, General Technical Report, FPL-GTR-239, 2015; pp. 365-377.

Author(s)Wang, Xiping; Ross, Robert J.; Verrill, Steve; Lowell, Eini; Barbour, Jamie

Publication Year: 2015  View PDF »

Category: General Technical Reports
Associated Research Project(s):   FPL-4714-1B  FPL-4851-1B

Abstract: In this study, we examined the potential of using a time-of-flight (TOF) acoustic wave method to evaluate thinning and biosolid fertilization effects on acoustic velocity of trees and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of structural lumber in a 76-year-old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb., Franco)) experimental stand. The stand consisted of four treatments: control, thinned, biosolid fertilized, and a combined thinned and fertilized treatment, each with three replicates on 0.08 hectare plots. Four trees were selected in each plot using a stratified random sample based on the plot quadratic mean diameter, resulting in a total sample of 48 trees ranging from 14.2- to 53.3-cm diameter at breast height (DBH). The sample trees were first nondestructively tested using a TOF-based acoustic measurement system to obtain acoustic velocity in trees. The sampled trees were then harvested, bucked into merchantable-length stems and then milllength logs that were sawn into lumber. Acoustic velocities of stems and logs and MOE of lumber were subsequently obtained. Our results indicated that biosolid fertilization had a statistically significant effect on acoustic velocities of trees, stems, and butt logs; thinning did not have a statistically significant effect on acoustic velocities; combining thinning with biosolids did not produce a change in acoustic velocity different from applying biosolids alone. These findings are consistent with the treatment effects that were reported on interannual ring specific gravity. At tree level, treatment had no significant effect on lumber stiffness.

Keywords: Acoustic velocity; biosolids; lumber; logs; trees; modulus of elasticity; thinning

Publication Review Process: Informally Refereed (Peer-Reviewed)

File size: 301 kb(s)

Date posted: 09/25/2015

This publication is also viewable on Treesearch:  view
RITS Product ID: 75515
Current FPL Scientists associated with this product (listed alphabetically)
Ross, Robert J.
Supervisory Research Gen. Engineer
Verrill, Steve P.
Mathematical Statistician
Wang, Xiping
Research Forest Products Technologist

Additional items that might interest you
View the video celebrating FPL's 100 years of public service in 2010, from the producers of the Greatest Good....view

Research Highlights from FPL....view

Termite Eradication: A search for the Holy Grail.... view

Moisture Management in Residential Construction Series videos...view

Wood Floor Systems in Residential Construction Series videos....view
- FPL's Mission and Strategic Plan -

FPL's mission is to identify and conduct innovative wood and fiber utilization research that contributes to conservation and productivity of the forest resource, thereby sustaining forests, the economy, and quality of life. ... ..more »

- FPL Research Emphasis Areas -
Advanced Composites

As an integral part of the FPL mission, we improve the long-term sustainability of our Nation's forests by creating valuable composite products from biobased materials ... ..more »

Advanced Structures

The FPL has been in the forefront of wood-frame housing research since 1910 and has long been recognized as a world leader in such housing-related areas as engineered wood ... ..more »

Forest Biorefinery

We all know the compelling reasons that the United States needs to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. Historically, the greatest increases in energy demand have been for transportation fuels ... ..more »


A leader in wood products research for over a century, the FPL is positioning itself to become the lead Federal research facility for the application of nanotechnology in forest products ... more »

Woody Biomass Utilization

Forests in the United States contain a substantial amount of small-diameter, overstocked, and underutilized material.FPL research projects are exploring the potential of the small-diameter ... ..more »