Banner for LabNotes
From Lab Notes
Contact Information
Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53726-2398
Phone: (608) 231-9200
Fax: (608) 231-9592


You are here: FPL Home  / Information Products & Services  / Publications

Requested Product

Title: Effect of Temperature and Moisture State Changes on Modulus of Elasticity of Red Pine Small Clear Wood

Source: In: Gen. Tech. Rept. FPL-GTR-226. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory. p. 442-450.

Author(s)Gao, Shan; Wang, Xiping; Wang, Lihai

Publication Year: 2013  View PDF »

Category: Conference Proceedings
Associated Research Project(s):   FPL-4714-1B

Abstract: This study examined the response of dynamic and static modulus of elasticity (MOE) of red pine small clear wood to a temperature change from -40 to 40 °C. The 25.4×25.4×407 mm red pine specimens used in this study were selected from those used in a previous laboratory investigation of acoustic properties. The moisture content (MC) of the specimens ranged from 0% to 118.3%. The dynamic MOE was calculated based on measured acoustic velocity and the wood density at the time of acoustic measurement. The static MOE was measured by conducting a static bending test in a laboratory-controlled environment chamber with wood temperature changing from -40 to 40 °C. Our results indicated that both static and dynamic MOE of wood were affected by temperature and the state of moisture in wood. Above freezing point, MOE decreased linearly at a slow rate as wood temperature increased. Below freezing point, MOE increased at a rapid rate as wood temperature dropped. We found that MC of wood had a significant compounding effect on the MOE-temperature relationships. Temperature effect was much more significant in green wood than in dry wood. Mathematical models were developed to predict the percentage change of MOE relative to the standard temperature of 20 °C for wood temperature below and above freezing point. It is concluded that dynamic MOE of wood based on acoustic measurements can be used as a good predictor of static MOE for nondestructive evaluation of wood under a range of wood temperatures.

Keywords: acoustic velocity, dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOE), static MOE, small clear wood, temperature, moisture content, freezing point

Publication Review Process: Non-Refereed (Other)

File size: 514 kb(s)

Date posted: 10/24/2013
RITS Product ID: 66551
Current FPL Scientist associated with this product
Wang, Xiping
Research Forest Products Technologist

Additional items that might interest you
View the video celebrating FPL's 100 years of public service in 2010, from the producers of the Greatest Good....view

Research Highlights from FPL....view

Termite Eradication: A search for the Holy Grail.... view

Moisture Management in Residential Construction Series videos...view

Wood Floor Systems in Residential Construction Series videos....view
- FPL's Mission and Strategic Plan -

FPL's mission is to identify and conduct innovative wood and fiber utilization research that contributes to conservation and productivity of the forest resource, thereby sustaining forests, the economy, and quality of life. ... ..more »

- FPL Research Emphasis Areas -
Advanced Composites

As an integral part of the FPL mission, we improve the long-term sustainability of our Nation's forests by creating valuable composite products from biobased materials ... ..more »

Advanced Structures

The FPL has been in the forefront of wood-frame housing research since 1910 and has long been recognized as a world leader in such housing-related areas as engineered wood ... ..more »

Forest Biorefinery

We all know the compelling reasons that the United States needs to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. Historically, the greatest increases in energy demand have been for transportation fuels ... ..more »


A leader in wood products research for over a century, the FPL is positioning itself to become the lead Federal research facility for the application of nanotechnology in forest products ... more »

Woody Biomass Utilization

Forests in the United States contain a substantial amount of small-diameter, overstocked, and underutilized material.FPL research projects are exploring the potential of the small-diameter ... ..more »