Banner for LabNotes
From Lab Notes
Contact Information
Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53726-2398
Phone: (608) 231-9200
Fax: (608) 231-9592


You are here: FPL Home  / Information Products & Services  / Publications

Requested Product

Title: Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) nanocomposites: properties, solubility of carbon dioxide, and foaming

Source: Cellulose 19: 1209-1223; 2012.

Author(s)Srithep, Yottha; Turng, Lih-Sheng; Sabo, Ronald; Clemons, Craig

Publication Year: 2012  View PDF »

Category: Journal Articles
Associated Research Project(s):   FPL-4706-2A

Abstract: Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and its nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) reinforced nanocomposites were produced and foamed and its properties-such as the dynamic mechanical properties, crystallization behavior, and solubility of carbon dioxide (CO2)were evaluated. PVOH was mixed with an NFC fiber suspension in water followed by casting. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, as well as the optical transparency of the films, revealed that the NFC fibers dispersed well in the resulting PVOH/NFC nanocomposites. Adding NFC increased the tensile modulus of the PVOH/NFC nanocomposites nearly threefold. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis showed that the NFC served as a nucleating agent, promoting the early onset of crystallization. However, high NFC content also led to greater thermal degradation of the PVOH matrix. PVOH/NFC nanocomposites were sensitive to moisture content and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) tests showed that, at room temperature, the storage modulus increased with decreasing moisture content. The solubility of CO2 in the PVOH/NFC nanocomposites depended on their moisture content and decreased with the addition of NFC. Moreover, the desorption diffusivity increased as more NFC was added. Finally, the foaming behavior of the PVOH/NFC nanocomposites was studied using CO2 and/or water as the physical foaming agent(s) in a batch foaming process. Only samples with a high moisture content were able to foam with CO2. Furthermore, the PVOH/NFC nanocomposites exhibited finer and more anisotropic cell morphologies than the neat PVOH films. In the absence of moisture, no foaming was observed in the CO2-saturated neat PVOH or PVOH/NFC nanocomposite samples.

Keywords: Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC); Polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH); nanocomposites; foaming

Publication Review Process: Informally Refereed (Peer-Reviewed)

File size: 8,927 kb(s)

Date posted: 08/10/2012

This publication is also viewable on Treesearch:  view
RITS Product ID: 60679
Current FPL Scientists associated with this product (listed alphabetically)
Clemons, Craig M.
Materials Research Engineer
Sabo, Ronald C.
Research Materials Engineer

Additional items that might interest you
View the video celebrating FPL's 100 years of public service in 2010, from the producers of the Greatest Good....view

Research Highlights from FPL....view

Termite Eradication: A search for the Holy Grail.... view

Moisture Management in Residential Construction Series videos...view

Wood Floor Systems in Residential Construction Series videos....view
- FPL's Mission and Strategic Plan -

FPL's mission is to identify and conduct innovative wood and fiber utilization research that contributes to conservation and productivity of the forest resource, thereby sustaining forests, the economy, and quality of life. ... ..more »

- FPL Research Emphasis Areas -
Advanced Composites

As an integral part of the FPL mission, we improve the long-term sustainability of our Nation's forests by creating valuable composite products from biobased materials ... ..more »

Advanced Structures

The FPL has been in the forefront of wood-frame housing research since 1910 and has long been recognized as a world leader in such housing-related areas as engineered wood ... ..more »

Forest Biorefinery

We all know the compelling reasons that the United States needs to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. Historically, the greatest increases in energy demand have been for transportation fuels ... ..more »


A leader in wood products research for over a century, the FPL is positioning itself to become the lead Federal research facility for the application of nanotechnology in forest products ... more »

Woody Biomass Utilization

Forests in the United States contain a substantial amount of small-diameter, overstocked, and underutilized material.FPL research projects are exploring the potential of the small-diameter ... ..more »