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Title: Tests for z-direction fibre orientation in paper

Source: Vahey, David W. and John M. Considine. Tests for z-direction fibre orientation in paper. Appita Journal, vol. 63, no. 1 : 27-31, 41 (Jan-Mar. 2010).2010

Author(s)Vahey, David W.; Considine, John M.

Publication Year: 2010  View PDF »

Category: Journal Articles
Associated Research Project(s):   FPL-4709-5A

Abstract: Fibres that acquire a z-direction tilt in the forming process help bond adjacent strata of the paper sheet, increasing z-direction shear. Fibre tilt manifests itself as a measurement difference when directionally sensitive tests are conducted 'toward headbox' or 'toward reel.' Seven of eight different paper grades ranging in grammage from 73 to 268 g/m2 were found to show this difference for Scott-internal-bond tests, directional-brightness tests, or both. Test results were compared for 180° rotations in the machine direction and cross-machine direction. Three-eights of the rotations showed significant directional effects at the 75-100% confidence level, including roughly equal numbers of Scott bond and brightness tests. However, the two tests did not reinforce each other strongly, possibly because of depth variations in z-direction tilt. A model emphasizing tilt of MD fibres caused by rush or drag conditions was well supported by Scott-bond testing. Directional effects in CD testing appear to require a more complex model based on cross flows in the forming section.

Keywords: Fibre tilt, grain, felting, z-direction, directionality, running direction, extension, shear, Scott internal bond, brightness, tape pull, fibre pull, ply-bond, sheet-splitting, Student’s t-test, confidence, significance, Fourdrinier, rush, drag, cross flows, paper, mechanical properties, testing, papermaking, orientation, fibers, optical measurements, optical properties, fiber analysis, fiber properties, dimensional stability, shear strength, microfibril angle, brightness, fiber orientation

Publication Review Process: Formally Refereed

File size: 307 kb(s)

Date posted: 07/15/2010

This publication is also viewable on Treesearch:  view
RITS Product ID: 35557
Current FPL Scientist associated with this product
Considine, John M.
Materials Research Engineer

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