Banner for LabNotes
From Lab Notes
Contact Information
Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53726-2398
Phone: (608) 231-9200
Fax: (608) 231-9592


You are here: FPL Home  / Information Products & Services  / Publications

Requested Product

Title: Raman spectra of lignin model compounds

Source: Proceedings of the 59th APPITA Annual Conference and Exhibition incorporating the 13th ISWFPC (International Symposium on Wood, Fibre, and Pulping Chemistry), held in Auckland, New Zealand (May 16-19, 2005). Carlton, Victoria, Australia]: APPITA, c2005. P

Author(s)Agarwal, Umesh P.; Reiner, Richard S.; Pandey, Ashok K.; Ralph, Sally A.; Hirth, Kolby C.; Atalla, Rajai H.

Publication Year: 2005  View PDF »

Category: Journal Articles

Abstract: To fully exploit the value of Raman spectroscopy for analyzing lignins and lignin containing materials, a detailed understanding of lignins' Raman spectra needs to be achieved. Although advances made thus far have led to significant growth in application of Raman techniques, further developments are needed to improve upon the existing knowledge. Considering that lignin's heterogeneous structure consists not only of inter-phenylpropane-unit linkages of carbon-to carbon and carbon-to- oxygen, but also of side chains with various substituent and functional groups, a study of a large number of representative models is essential. In the present work, 40 lignin models were investigated in the neat state (near-IR FT-Raman and FT-IR), in solution (near-IR FT-Raman), and on cellulose (near-IR FT-Raman). These models represent a large number of substituent/functional groups and sub-structures in lignin - aliphatic and phenolic OH, C=O, CHO, COOH, CH3, OCH3, a,b C=C, furan, and interunit C-O- C and C-C linkages. Raman band positions associated with various groups were identified and Raman frequencies and intensities were compared between the models. For example, for the phenyl group, some of the noteworthy findings were as follows. The intensities of the 1600 (aromatic ring stretch) and 3070 (aromatic C-H stretch) cm-1 bands varied significantly between the models. The position of the 1600 cm-1-Raman-mode was found to be only minimally sensitive to substituents because in about 70 % of the models, including those containing more than 1 phenyl group, the vibrational frequency was confined between 1594 and 1603 cm-1. Similar information was obtained on other functional groups as well. It is hoped that the findings from this study will greatly aid in developing a better understanding of the Raman spectra of lignins and lignocellulosic materials.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, lignin model compounds, lignin, spectroscopy

File size: 296 kb(s)

This publication is also viewable on Treesearch:  view
RITS Product ID: 16718
Current FPL Scientist associated with this product
Agarwal, Umesh P.
Research Chemist

Additional items that might interest you
View the video celebrating FPL's 100 years of public service in 2010, from the producers of the Greatest Good....view

Research Highlights from FPL....view

Termite Eradication: A search for the Holy Grail.... view

Moisture Management in Residential Construction Series videos...view

Wood Floor Systems in Residential Construction Series videos....view
- FPL's Mission and Strategic Plan -

FPL's mission is to identify and conduct innovative wood and fiber utilization research that contributes to conservation and productivity of the forest resource, thereby sustaining forests, the economy, and quality of life. ... ..more »

- FPL Research Emphasis Areas -
Advanced Composites

As an integral part of the FPL mission, we improve the long-term sustainability of our Nation's forests by creating valuable composite products from biobased materials ... ..more »

Advanced Structures

The FPL has been in the forefront of wood-frame housing research since 1910 and has long been recognized as a world leader in such housing-related areas as engineered wood ... ..more »

Forest Biorefinery

We all know the compelling reasons that the United States needs to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. Historically, the greatest increases in energy demand have been for transportation fuels ... ..more »


A leader in wood products research for over a century, the FPL is positioning itself to become the lead Federal research facility for the application of nanotechnology in forest products ... more »

Woody Biomass Utilization

Forests in the United States contain a substantial amount of small-diameter, overstocked, and underutilized material.FPL research projects are exploring the potential of the small-diameter ... ..more »