Banner for LabNotes
From Lab Notes
Contact Information
Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53726-2398
Phone: (608) 231-9200
Fax: (608) 231-9592
Email

 

You are here: FPL Home  / Information Products & Services  / Publications

Requested Product

Title: Integrated experimental and numerical study on flexural properties of cross laminated timber made of low-value sugar maple lumber

Source: Construction and Building Materials

Author(s)Ma, Yunxiang ; Musah, Munkaila ; Si, Ruizhe ; Dai, Qingli ; Xie, Xinfeng ; Wang, Xiping ; Ross, Robert J.

Publication Year: 2021  View PDF »

Category: Journal Articles

Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine the mechanical performance of cross laminated timber (CLT) panels made of low-value sugar maple under out of plane loads through mechanical tests and numerical simulation. The laminations were sorted into High and Low classes based on the measured modulus of elasticity (MOE). Two 3-layer sugar maple CLT layups as High-Low-High and Low-High-Low glued with resorcinol-based adhesive and one CLT layup of High-Low-High glued with melamine-based adhesive were prepared. Block shear, long-span bending (span-to-depth ratio of 33:1) and short-span bending (5.5:1) tests were conducted to evaluate the bonding, flexural and shear behavior of these low-value sugar maple CLTs. With a limited sample size, the lab-manufactured low-value sugar maple CLT provided a 50% to 80% higher MOE and at least two times higher MOR than CLT type E1 from APA/PRG 320. Similar MOE and MOR improvements were found by comparing CLT made with other species from literatures. The finite element simulation of bending tests was conducted with the orthogonal constitutive law and the progressive damage model based on the calibrated material properties parameters from lumber rating and references. The simulation results on each CLT panel type have a reasonable comparison with experimental test data. Therefore, these integrated experiment and simulation methods can provide detailed mechanical behaviors of the low-value sugar maple CLT, which can also be applied to other CLT species and layup.

Keywords: Cross-laminated timber (CLT); low-value hardwood; flexural properties; static bending test; finite element modeling

Publication Review Process: Formally Refereed

File size: 2,048 kb(s)

Date posted: 03/16/2021

This publication is also viewable on Treesearch:  view
RITS Product ID: 10126
Current FPL Scientists associated with this product (listed alphabetically)
Ross, Robert J.
Supervisory Research Gen. Engineer
Wang, Xiping
Research Forest Products Technologist
 

Additional items that might interest you
View the video celebrating FPL's 100 years of public service in 2010, from the producers of the Greatest Good....view

Research Highlights from FPL....view

Termite Eradication: A search for the Holy Grail.... view

Moisture Management in Residential Construction Series videos...view

Wood Floor Systems in Residential Construction Series videos....view
- FPL's Mission and Strategic Plan -

FPL's mission is to identify and conduct innovative wood and fiber utilization research that contributes to conservation and productivity of the forest resource, thereby sustaining forests, the economy, and quality of life. ... ..more »

- FPL Research Emphasis Areas -
Advanced Composites

As an integral part of the FPL mission, we improve the long-term sustainability of our Nation's forests by creating valuable composite products from biobased materials ... ..more »


Advanced Structures

The FPL has been in the forefront of wood-frame housing research since 1910 and has long been recognized as a world leader in such housing-related areas as engineered wood ... ..more »


Forest Biorefinery

We all know the compelling reasons that the United States needs to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. Historically, the greatest increases in energy demand have been for transportation fuels ... ..more »


Nanotechnology

A leader in wood products research for over a century, the FPL is positioning itself to become the lead Federal research facility for the application of nanotechnology in forest products ... more »


Woody Biomass Utilization

Forests in the United States contain a substantial amount of small-diameter, overstocked, and underutilized material.FPL research projects are exploring the potential of the small-diameter ... ..more »