One early major accomplishment of the Forest Products Laboratory and the Forest Service’s Southern Research Station was cooperative research with industry to develop a way to economically convert southern pine softwood to pulp for newsprint and bleached paper.
Click to enlarge in Flickr.
Later a polysulfide process to produce higher yields from southern pine and other softwoods was developed, and today the use of southern pine pulp is a multi-billion dollar industry.
FPL also pioneered the development of multistage bleaching methods for southern pine sulfate pulp. The commercial production of bleached sulfate pulp suitable for bond, writing, wrapping, printing, and specialty papers now amounts to millions of tons annually. Results of this research have helped keep the cost of paper low.
Loblolly pine ranges from Georgia and the Carolinas to Texas but a destructive fungus is threatening this common southern softwood. Fusiform rust, Cronartium quercuum f.sp. fusiforme, is one the most destructive forest diseases in the South. With its complex life cycle, this fungus infects both loblolly and slash pine causing canker formation that frequently kills the infected branch.
The pine infection cycle occurs in Georgia in April and early May. Elongated swelling of the branches is the result of individual attacks on different parts of a tree. Many of the infected trees are unsuitable for later use as forest products, causing millions of dollars to be lost annually. Trees with large galls on the main stem are also unsuitable for many products.
Distribution of fusiform rust.
Fusiform gall producing aeciospores.
Telia (spores) of fusiform rust.
Closeup of telia.
Fusiform rust symptoms.
Fusiform rust on loblolly pine. Photo by Roderquita Moore.
Multiple branch cankers.
Most of the photos in the above slideshow are by Robert L. Anderson, US Forest Service.
Changes in wood chemistry resulting from fungal decay of Scots pine have been studied directly using spectroscopy, the study of interactions between matter and radiated energy. A 2003 study by Pandey and Pitman exposed Scots pine sapwood to brown rot, selective white rot, and nonselective white rot fungi. In this study, the decay process was followed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). After 12 weeks, the wood exposed to the brown rot fungus resulted in progressive increase in lignin content relative to cellulose and hemicellulose, whereas the lignin content of the wood exposed to the selective white rot decreased as decay proceeded. For the wood exposed to the nonselective white rot wood, both occurred.