Throwback Thursday: Building With Glued Arches


Laboratory utility building of plywood with glued arches, the first structure of this type in the United States.

The first research at FPL on engineering design data for glued laminated arches was undertaken in 1934, when a number of three-hinged arches were fabricated and installed in what was called Building 2, the packaging research building.

It was no ordinary building—it was built using laminated arches and also included other arches made from wood. The purpose was to provide a useful building but also one in which a visitor could observe different types of arches and see the advantages of design to decrease material and improve aesthetics. It included tests of structural units to check such factors as design formulas and working stresses, and the effect on strength of curvature, scarf joints, and knots in the inner laminations.

Results of this research are presented in United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin 691, The Glued Laminated Wooden Arch, which provides the technical data necessary for the use of laminated arches on a sound basis.

The building suffered a major fire in later years, but when the firefighters learned the building was built with wood beams, they were able to save the structure. In 2010, this building was dismantled and the arches were saved for testing.

FPL History: Laminated Construction



FPL’s pioneering work on the engineering design of glued-laminated construction helped launch the laminating industry in the United States. Much of the research on laminated wood originated at the time of the first World War when the Bureau of Aircraft Production approached FPL with a need for lightweight airplane wings.

Shortly after the U.S. entrance into the war, FPL initiated a very elaborate investigation into the mechanical properties of plywood, as no information was available on this subject and its importance in connection with aircraft design was evident. As this investigation proceeded, the possibilities in the structural use of this material became greater and scientists applied the new knowledge as quickly as possible. The photo above demonstrates various products produced from laminated wood.

FPL scientists have been at the forefront of designing laminated arches and beams for construction. FPL researchers have designed and evaluated various beams to determine how to economically fabricate beams to maximize strength, and they determined if underutilized species could be used. The results of research have eliminated the need to cut large trees to produce satisfactory beams for construction. Also, many smaller, less utilized species of wood can now be assembled and used as large beams.


Glulam beams being installed in an FPL building in about 1931.


Historic Glued-Laminated Arches Evaluated for Structural Quality


Building Two on the FPL campus was constructed in 1934 and deconstructed in 2010. Bottom photo credit: Steve Schmeiding, FPL.

The second glued-laminated structure built in the United States was constructed at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in Madison, Wis. “Building Two” was constructed in 1934 to demonstrate the performance of wooden arch buildings. At various times it acted as a supplementary laboratory, lecture hall, and storage facility. Building Two was decommissioned in 2010.

A new General Technical Report (FPL-GTR-226) by FPL engineer Doug Rammer and Jorge Daniel de Melo Moura of the Department of Architecture and Urbanization, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, in Parana, Brazil, details a systematic evaluation of the glued-laminated arches used to construct Building Two. Glued laminated timbers are a manufactured structural timber product composed of layers of dimensional lumber glued together.


Construction of Building Two in 1934 used three different glued laminated arch configurations. Click on the photo to view a larger version on the FPL Flickr site.

Shortly after the construction of Building Two, researchers evaluated the glued-laminated arch structure for uniform loading on the center arch. This structural system evaluation was added to the existing laboratory work on glued-laminated arches to develop the foundation on which the current glued-laminated arch design criteria is based.

After decommissioning, recovered arches were tested in the Engineering Mechanics and Remote Sensing Laboratory at FPL to evaluate the loss of structural performance by comparing original and current deformation. Based on a preliminary visual and structural assessment Rammer and Melo Moura found minimal loss of structural performance in all the arches but one, an arch that was exposed to a significant amount of water resulting from extinguishing a fire in Building Two.

The Big Break: Strength Testing of Glulam Beams

If you’ve ever wondered what 80,000 pounds of load looks or sounds like when applied to a 3-ton wood beam, now’s your chance. Bam! (Hint: keep the volume up around the :53 second mark.)

The largest wood beams ever tested are being studied at the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL).

Made of Douglas-fir, the glued laminated (glulam) beams each measured 72-feet-long and weighed in at 6,000 pounds.

Using FPL’s strong floor system coupled with hydraulic rams, engineers broke 12 glulam beams to determine how much load they could withstand.  The beams were fitted with sensors that recorded the effects of the applied load.


One big beam, “taken to failure.”

Each test took about 8 minutes to conduct, and the beams bowed as much as 13 inches in the middle before finally snapping under the pressure. The beams withstood a range of loads between 69,000 and 95,800 pounds.

Thanks to the new Centennial Research Facility, FPL is one of the few locations worldwide that has the capacity to test such large wood specimens.  As FPL engineer Doug Rammer explains, that capability is key to determining their strength.

“To get a realistic measurement of how much load these large beams can withstand, it’s important to test them at their actual size,” Rammer says. “Larger beams fail at a lower stress when compared to smaller replicas, so full-scale testing is necessary to obtain accurate data.”

Glued laminated timbers are a manufactured wood product composed of layers of sawn lumber glued together. Glulam beams are typically used in commercial construction to span large open areas, such as in churches or sporting arenas. They make for both an aesthetically pleasing and structurally sound option.

FPL researchers are working in cooperation with the University of British Columbia on these tests. The results will influence building code requirements for the use of glulams in the United States and Canada.

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By James T. Spartz, FPL Public Affairs Specialist

Spanning the Decades: Timber Bridges Provide Vital Back-Country Links Glulam beams offer long-term durability, safety for National Forest System bridges

The U.S. Forest Service has often used timber components to build bridges, many of which connect some of the most remote back-country roads in the nation. About 4,100 bridges using timber as a primary structural component remain in the National Forest System highway network. Many of these bridges are made of glued laminated (glulam) timber materials. Glulam beams are manufactured using dimension lumber and industrial strength waterproof adhesives to bond the many layers together into one solid piece. Though durable for decades of use, timber bridges are eventually subject to load restrictions like any other bridge structure.

Jenny Creek Bridge glulams loaded to move overland to Wisconsin.

Jenny Creek Bridge glulams loaded to move overland to Wisconsin.

A number of glulam girder bridges in the National Forest System are now facing restricted load capacities simply due to age even though they are in satisfactory condition otherwise. These bridges use timber girders that were manufactured prior to 1970, when the American Institute of Timber Construction first introduced a national standard for tension lamination quality. The “tension” laminate uses higher-grade lumber to create the bottom layer of a glulam beam, which is critical for its bending strength. Because safe load-carrying capacities must be assigned to all bridges, over 160 timber bridge structures throughout the National Forest System could be affected by new restrictions. Restricting weight limits for vehicles crossing over a remote national forest road bridge can have severe implications for fire and rescue operations critical to the health and safety of the forests and the people who use them.


In 2009, Forest Service engineers began the process of decommissioning the Jenny Creek Bridge, an older glulam structure near the village of Kake, on Kupreanof Island, in southeast Alaska. Located within the Tongass National Forest, America’s largest National Forest, the original bridge was installed in 1967 with four primary girders. In 1978 it was modified by adding two exterior glulam beams to replace and widen the deck. The four interior girders, however, are assumed to be manufactured without specially-graded tension laminations. The 2009 reconstruction project provided a unique opportunity for full-scale testing of salvaged glulam bridge beams in a laboratory setting to directly measure their ultimate load capacity using standardized laboratory test methods. FPL researchers jumped at the chance. Through a coordinated effort by Forest Service (FS) engineers from the Pacific Northwest region (FS-Region 6), Alaska (FS-Region 10), and the FPL, arrangements for laboratory strength tests were made.

Existing Jenny Creek bridge girders removal, near Kake, Alaska.

“Working on projects like this is very rewarding,” says Jim Wacker, FPL’s lead research general engineer for this project. “The testing done on these historic bridges can help field engineers and policy-makers make informed decisions about the current status and future use of these vital links in our National Forest transportation network.”

Bridges using glulam girders manufactured prior to 1970 are facing reduced load ratings, says Wacker. New restrictions would require that signs be installed to indicate load limits and many bridges would be slated for replacement. The average replacement cost per bridge is about $300,000. Several bridges would need immediate replacement due to their vital service towards forest fire suppression and other public safety responsibilities. Replacing all the pre-1970 glulam bridges would potentially cost taxpayers around $48 million dollars.

The cost of transporting the 50-foot-long glulam girders from the Jenny Creek Bridge was a barrier until Economic Recovery (Stimulus) funds became available through the U.S. Department of Transportation’s Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After being carefully removed and marked to indicate locations in the original bridge structure, the girders were shipped to a nearby port where all six beams were barged to Seattle, Wash. From there they were loaded on a flatbed truck and delivered to the FPL in Madison, Wisc.

“This has truly been a group effort,” says Wacker, noting the extensive collaboration needed to coordinate such a project. “It wouldn’t have been possible without the combined work of my other Forest Service colleagues, the FHWA, and all the folks here at FPL.” Wacker has been collaborating on this project with Dave Strahl and Rod Dell’Andrea, FS engineers from the Pacific Northwest Engineering Structures unit and Alaska Engineering Structures unit, respectively, and Scott Groenier of the Forest Service’s Missoula Technology and Development Center.

Tests are currently being conducted in FPL’s Engineering Mechanics and Remote Sensing Laboratory which is one of the only facilities in the world with the capacity to perform bending strength tests for such large beams. Each girder is approximately 50 feet long, 40-5/8 inches deep, and 14-1/2 inches wide, weighing about 6,500 pounds apiece. The creosote-treated beams are made of Douglas fir lumber. A variety of nondestructive readings have been taken at several locations along each beam to assess their internal condition.

Research is needed to verify whether or not in-service glulam bridge girders manufactured prior to 1970 are still safe. A key focus during a preliminary series of live-load field tests, performed on a number of bridges in Oregon & Washington in 2009 and 2010, was gathering details about the glulam girder laminations in the tension zone. During these extensive tests many material properties of various glulam beams were assessed. Core samples were taken to determine the wood species via microscopic analysis and the locations of glued scarf joints and knots in the girder’s tension zones were recorded. Sound-wave testing was also performed to learn more about the internal integrity of the tension laminations. These results, along with laboratory research accomplished at the FPL, will form the basis for a new load-rating strategy and should provide engineers with increased confidence in assigning a safe load capacity to these historic first-generation glulam girder bridges.

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By James T. Spartz, FPL Public Affairs Specialist