Front Page News! FPL's "Tree Detective" is Cover Story Material

Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) botanist Alex Wiedenhoeft has a fascinating career. Whether he’s using forensic botany to aid law enforcement, finding new ways to extract DNA from wood, or fact-checking certified wood products, he always has an interesting story to tell.

Isthmus, a weekly newspaper here in Madison, Wisconsin, agrees, and featured Wiedenhoeft and his work to curb illegal logging as this week’s cover story.

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FPL botanist Alex Wiedenhoeft

If you thought illegal logging was just a problem affecting trees and forests, think again. The article explains that “when law enforcement agents capture a shipment of illegal timber, they also often find illegally captured wildlife, illegal drugs, weapons and slaves” and that “revenue from illegally harvested timber has been linked to armed conflicts around the world.”

To find out how Wiedenhoeft works to combat these disastrous consequences, and learn about some of the wild cases he’s worked on over the years, read the full article at Isthmus.com.

All In a Day’s Work: Identifying Wood Species in Antique Horse Hames

Mike Wiemann, a botanist in the Forest Products Laboratory’s (FPL) Center for Wood Anatomy Research, has a special skill: identifying wood species, often with just a quick look through a tiny hand lens he carries in his pocket.

Mike Wiemann, FPL botanist, prepares a sample for identification.

Mike Wiemann, FPL botanist, prepares a sample for identification.

While most of us simply see wood, Wiemann can recognize varying species by looking at the end grain and evaluating the size and arrangement of the tissue components. And he did just that recently for a visitor to the Lab with a unique collection.

Willis Parker, a retired veterinarian, has an extensive collection of hames, two curved pieces of iron or wood forming (or attached to) the collar of a draft horse. Parker has collected nearly 400 hames over several decades, and is working to clean, photograph, identify wood species, and name the makers to preserve the history of their use.

Willis Parker shows Wiemann his hame collection.

Willis Parker (left) shows Wiemann his hame collection.

Interestingly, Wiemann happened to know what a hame was thanks to his college days. “In 1964, a requirement of the Intro to Forestry class I took my freshman year was to memorize and identify the parts of a harness,” said Wiemann. “I never thought I’d use that information again!”

With special permission from Wiemann (whose skills are in high demand), Parker brought 22 hames to FPL one sunny afternoon for wood identification. Some were well-worn and simple in design, used for work horses that pulled plows; others were painted and ornate, used when pulling carriages for wealthy passengers.

Parker laid out the pieces of wood, most dating from the early 1900s, and Wiemann got to work. What he found were hames made from ash, beech, red oak, white oak, hard maple, and elm.

Parker carefully tagged and labeled each hame after Wiemann announced the species, and he thanked Wiemann repeatedly for helping gather such useful information about his collection.

Wiemann was more than happy to help, as here at FPL, public service really is all in a day’s work.

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Wiemann looks at a wood hame through his hand lens to identify the species.

 

 

Forensic Fact-Checking of Certified Wood Products

When consumers buy a certified product, they expect it to be exactly what it claims to be. In order to maintain their consumers’ trust, suppliers of these goods often bring in an independent third party to verify that what is being sold is exactly what was promised.

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Forensic wood science is being employed to verify supply chain integrity. (Photo on right courtesy of Gary Dodge.)

Researchers at the Forest Products Laboratory’s (FPL) Center for Wood Anatomy Research are serving as such a third party in partnership with the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC). More than 456 million forested acres in 80 countries are certified to FSC standards, and more than 40,000 forest products companies participate in their certification system.

FPL researchers are developing and applying forensic wood scientific approaches to verify industry claims and enhance supply chain integrity of FSC-certified wood products, among several other objectives.

Forensic wood science techniques will be employed in the laboratory for every product that is tested. Some products are submitted for testing by FSC, and some are purchased directly by FPL in the open market for evaluation.

For more on the background, objectives, and expected outcomes of this project, please read this Research In Progress report.

 

 

Partners In Crime: Forensic Botany Current Focus of Century-Old Collaboration

Students in the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW) Department of Botany’s Forensic Botany class recently toured the Center for Wood Anatomy Research (CWAR) at the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL). The tour is just a part of the latest collaboration between the two, which have partnered in various ways for nearly a century.

“This was an opportunity for the students to take a peek at the dirty white underbelly of scientific research, and see what a wood anatomy lab looks like,” said Alex Wiedenhoeft, Research Botanist and Team Leader in the CWAR, and one of the Botany Department professors co-teaching the course.

FPL's Alex Wiedenhoeft addresses a UW-Madison Forensic Botany class.

FPL’s Alex Wiedenhoeft addresses a UW-Madison Forensic Botany class.

Wiedenhoeft and his CWAR research team showed the students a range of projects, from botanical wood anatomy exploring the evolution of plant form, to the nuts and bolts of ongoing forensic wood science research.  “We’re using their exposure to the realities of wood research as a backdrop for their capstone laboratory work in the class, where they will divide into teams, experts for the prosecution and defense, and work together to complete a forensic wood analysis,” said Wiedenhoeft.

He won’t divulge what cases the students will solve, but Wiedenheoft indicated that one is a civil case involving alleged wood species substitution.  He won’t even hint at the criminal case.  (A note of reassurance if the thought of botanists-in-training tackling legal cases makes you nervous: “These cases are completely fictional,” Wiedenhoeft said, ensuring that no ongoing real-world cases could be jeopardized.)

At first glance, courses in forensic botany or forensic wood science may look like a novelty, but the CWAR and the UW have a long history of working together on forensic matters, from questions about the kind of wooden stick found in a plastic bottle to plant material as a feedstock for the synthesis of illegal drugs. (There was even a joint investigation into possible wood evidence from a famous serial killer, but we’ll save that story for another blog post.)

 A Historic Collaboration

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Eloise Gerry made the first connection between the UW and FPL’s CWAR.

The CWAR and the UW Department of Botany have a nearly a century’s history of interaction.  The first and most obvious place they come together is in academic lineages for CWAR leadership, which go back at least to the 1920’s. The first Project Leader of the CWAR, and the first female scientist in the Forest Service, Eloise Gerry, earned her Ph.D. in the UW Departments of Botany and Plant Pathology in 1921.

Several decades pass with no recorded affiliations, then Robert Koeppen became a student of legendary former UW Herbarium Director Hugh Iltis.  Koeppen went on to be Project Leader of the CWAR from 1975-1980.   The next Project Leader in the CWAR succession (1980-2005), Regis Miller, had been a Master’s student of the UW’s Ray Evert in the 1960s and also became an Adjunct Professor of Botany at the UW.

The current Team Leader for the CWAR, Alex Wiedenhoeft, was an undergraduate student of Ray Evert, earned both his M.S. and Ph.D. in Botany with Paul Berry, and now is an Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department.  All senior staff in the CWAR have some official appointment within the Department. Research Botanist Michael Wiemann is an Honorary Fellow affiliated through Ken Cameron.  Rafael Arévalo and Adriana Costa are Honorary Fellows affiliated through Wiedenhoeft, and are also working in his lab as postdocs.

Internships for Botany Department students, undergraduate and graduate, have been an important part of CWAR’s contact and interaction with the UW.  Alumni of CWAR student programs include Wiedenhoeft (B.S., M.S., Ph.D. –Berry), Terra Theim (B.S., Ph.D.-Givnish), Deniz Aygoren (M.S. -Cameron), Brian Sidoti (Ph.D. -Cameron), Rafael Arévalo (Ph.D.-Cameron), and Giovanny Giraldo (current Ph.D. student – Cameron).

The two institutions have another historic guest relationship – lectures on wood anatomy and wood identification in Sara Hotchkiss’ Dendrology and Marisa Otegui’s Plant Anatomy classes.  Now, Wiedenhoeft and Hotchkiss have teamed up to develop and teach Forensic Botany.  Arévalo presented a guest lecture on plant poisons in the course, and Costa has assisted in developing the hands-on laboratory activities.

The CWAR and UW Department of Botany have a reciprocal history in scientific collections, as well. In the early 2000s, the CWAR herbarium (MAD) was transferred on permanent loan to the Department’s Wisconsin State Herbarium (WIS) facility, thanks in large part to a facilities grant awarded to house this collection in new compacting cabinets.  A few years later, Ray Evert transferred the Katherine Esau and Vernon Cheadle phloem microscope slide collection to the CWAR, where it is now housed and accessioned.  In this way, MAD is a permanent guest of the UW, as the slide collection is of the CWAR.

The xylarium, or collection of wood specimens, at the Forest Products Laboratory.

The xylarium, or collection of wood specimens, at the Forest Products Laboratory.

Looking to the Future

With the growth in CWAR research program in the last several years and a new level of cooperation between the UW Department of Botany and CWAR, opportunities for future collaboration are growing in basic and applied research, as well as collections management and curation.

Community engagement and outreach, especially in the coming years, is another area where the groups work together and share common goals.  Staff want to bring science to the people, and seek to inspire kids to ask questions about the natural world, and to think seriously about careers in STEM-related fields. Because the CWAR and the Botany Department share similar goals in their desire for outreach, staff worked together to translate their passion for, and the relevance of, plant research to a module about tree growth, wood evolution, and wood anatomy. This development improves public access to basic plant science research and information.

Through continued work with the UW Department of Botany, CWAR is looking forward to building a new foundation for the next century of collaboration.

Blog post by Alex Wiedenhoeft, Rafael Arévalo, Adriana Costa, and Rebecca Wallace