Pinus resinosa

 

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Family: Pinaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Red Pine

 

 

 

The genus Pinus is composed of about 100 species native to temperate and tropical regions of the world. Wood of pine can be separated microscopically into the white, red and yellow pine groups. The word pinus is the classical Latin name. The word resinosa means resinous.

Other Common Names: Amerikansk rod-tall, Canadese rode pijn, Canadian pine, Canadian red pine, eastern red pine, hard pine, northern pine, Norway pine, Ottawa Red pine, pig iron pine, pig-iron-norway, pin de norvege, pin resineux, pin rouge, pin rouge d'Amerique, pin rouge du Canada, pino rojo americano, pino rosso americano, pitch pine, Quebec pine, red deal, red pine, shellbark Norway pine, tannub ahhmar, yellow deal.

Distribution: Red pine is native to Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, southern Quebec and Maine, west to central Ontario and southeastern Manitoba, south to southeastern Minnesota and east to Wisconsin, Michigan, southern Ontario, northern Pennsylvania, northern New Jersey, Connecticut and Massachusetts. Also locally in northern Illinois, eastern West Virginia and Newfoundland.

The Tree: Red pine trees reach heights of 80 feet, with diameters of 3 feet. A record tree was reported at 150 tall, with a diameter of 5 feet. Long lived stands may contain as old as 200 years.

General Wood Characteristics: The sapwood of red pine is nearly white to yellow, while the heartwood varies from red to reddish brown. It has an oily feel and has a resinous odor. It is straight, even grained, medium textured and moderately heavy. It is intermediate in density between longleaf and eastern white pine. It is also relatively strong and stiff and is moderately high in shock resistance. It is moderately durable for uses not in contact with the ground and is easy to treat with preservatives. It has moderately large shrinkage, but is not difficult to dry. It is easy to work with hand tools, holds nails and screws well, finishes well, but has difficulty holding paint.

 

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.41

1.28

5800

2730

260

6.1

340

690

Dry

0.51

1.63

11000

6070

600

9.9

560

1210

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (56).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

7.2

5.8

2.4

Radial

3.8

3.7

1.5

Volumetric

11.3

9.2

3.8

References: (56, 192).

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Conventional temperature/moisture content-controlled schedulesa


Condition

4/4, 5/4
stock

6/4 stock

8/4
stock

10/4
stock

12/4
stock

British schedule
4/4 stock

Standard

TT12-B4

NA

T11-B3

T7-A3

T7-A3

L

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

aReference (28, 185).

 

High temperaturea


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock


Other products

Standard

410

NA

411

NA

aReferences (28, 184).

Working Properties: It is easy to work with hand tools, holds nails and screws well, finishes well, but has difficulty holding paint.

Durability: It is moderately durable for uses not in contact with the ground.

Preservation: It is easy to treat with preservatives

Uses: poles, pilings, cabin logs, posts, lumber for construction (girders, beams, joists, studs, stair parts and trusses), house siding, framing, shelving, trim millwork, lawn and garden furniture, woodenware, novelties, toys, pulp and paper. The trees are planted for wind breaks and Christmas trees. The bark is used for tanning and the old stumps are used for turpentine and rosin production.

Toxicity: In general, working with pine wood may cause dermatitis, allergic bronchial asthma or rhinitis in some individuals (4, 9 & 14).

 

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

1. Boone, R. S.; Kozlik, C. J.; Bois, P. J., and Wengert, E. M. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL-GTR-57; 1988.

2. Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B., and Harrison, S. G. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae. London, UK: Edward Arnold Ltd.; 1966.

3. Elias, T. S. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. New York, NY: van Nostrand Reinhold Co.; 1980.

4. Hausen, B. M. Woods injurious to human health. A manual. New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter; 1981.

5. Henderson, F. Y. A handbook of softwoods. London: HMSO; 1977.

6. Kallio, E. and Benzie, J. W. Red pine, an American wood. Washington, DC, USA.: USDA Forest Service, FS-255.; 1980.

7. Kraemer, J. H. The effects of three factors upon the cross-breaking strength and stiffness of red pine. Lafayette, IN, USA.: Purdue University, Agricultural Experiment Station, Station Bulletin 560.; 1951.

8. Little, jr. E. L. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Washington, DC: USGPO, USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 541; 1979.

9. Mitchell, J. and Rook, A. Botanical dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver, BC: Greenglass Ltd.; 1979.

10. Rudolf, P. O. Pinus resinosa Ait. Red Pine. in: Burns, R. M. and Honkala, B. H., tech. coords. Silvics of North America. Volume 1, Conifers. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1990; pp. 442-455.

11. Simpson, W. T. Dry kiln operator's manual. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 188; 1991.

12. Summitt, R. and Sliker, A. CRC handbook of materials science. Vol. 4. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.; 1980.

13. USDA. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 72; 1974.

14. Woods, B. and Calnan, C. D. Toxic woods. British Journal of Dermatology. 1976; 95(13):1-