Pinus radiata

 

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Family: Pinaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Radiata Pine

 

 

 

Radiata pine is one of over 40 species in the Yellow Pine Group. The word pinus is the classical Latin name, while radiata means radiate or rayed, referring to the markings on the cone scales.

Other Common Names: insignis, insignis pine, insignis-pijn, insignispijn, insular pine, insular two-leaved pine, monterey fohre, Monterey kiefer, monterey kieffer, monterey nmanty, Monterey pine, Monterey small-coned pine, nearly smooth-cone pine, nearly-smooth cone pine, pin de Monterey, pin radiata, pin radiata, pino de Monterey, pino di Monterey, pino insegne, pino insigne, radiata pijn, radiata pine, Radiatakiefer, radiatamanty, radiata-tall, remarkable cone pine, remarkable pine, small-coned Monterey pine, smooth-cone pine, spreading-cone pine.

Distribution: Native to the central coast of California from sea level to a maximum elevation of 1,000 feet. Planted extensively in the southern hemisphere mainly in Chile, New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa.

The Tree: In native stands, may reach heights of 70-110 feet and diameters of 2-3 feet. Plantation grown trees may reach a height of 80-90 feet in 20 years. Following data is mostly for plantation grown wood.

General Wood Characteristics: Heartwood light brown to pinkish brown; distinct from the paler creamy white sapwood. Growth rings mostly wide and distinct, false rings may be common; grain usually straight; texture moderately even and fine; moderate to high luster in sapwood; odor slightly resinous.

 

??Weight

 

 

Weight

Moisture content

Specific gravity

lb/ft3

kg/m3

Greena

NA

25

401

12%b

NA

33

529

12%c

NA

34

545

12%d

NA

32

513

12%e

NA

28

449

Ovendrya

0.33

NA

NA

Ovendryb

0.43

NA

NA

Ovendryc

0.44

NA

NA

Ovendryd

0.42

NA

NA

Ovendrye

0.38

NA

NA

??aReference (1), bReference (8), cReference (9), dReference (19), eReference (20).

??Mechanical Properties?

Property

Green

Dry

MOEa

0.93 ´ 106 lbf/in2

 

1.18 ´ 106 lbf/in2

 

MOEb

NA

 

1.66 ´ 106 lbf/in2

 

MOEc

1.29 ´ 106 lbf/in2

 

1.62 ´ 106 lbf/in2

 

MOEe

1.06 ´ 106 lbf/in2

 

1.37 ´ 106 lbf/in2

 

MORa

4.85 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

9.10 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

MORb

NA

 

12.7 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

MORc

6.41 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

11.98 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

MORd

NA

 

12.6 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

MORe

5.88 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

11.01 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

C| |a

1.97 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

4.90 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

C| |b

NA

 

7.00´ 103 lbf/in2

 

C| |c

3.03 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

6.33 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

C| |e

2.59 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

5.90 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

C^b

NA

 

0.52 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

WMLe

NA

 

NA

 

Hardnessc

498 lbf

 

792 lbf

 

Hardnesse

500 lbf

 

625 lbf

 

Shear| |b

NA

 

1.64 ´ 103 lbf/in2

 

??aReference (1), bReference (8), cReference (9), dReference (19), eReference (20),

(all are from 2-inch standard).

Forest Products Laboratory toughness 154 in-lbf for green material (5/8 in specimen), Reference (9).

 

??Drying and shrinkage

 

Percentage of shrinkage

(green to final moisture content)

Type of shrinkage

0%MCa

6%MC

20%MC

Tangential

6.7

NA

NA

Radial

3.4

NA

NA

Volumetric

10.7

NA

NA

a Air or kiln dries rapidly with little degrade. Movement in service is rated as medium.

Reference (9).?

 

??Kiln drying schedulea

Condition

4/4, 5/4, 6/4

stock

8/4

stock

10/4

stock

12/4

stock

16/4 stock

British Schedule 4/4, 5/4, 6/4 stock

Standard

T13-C4S

NA

NA

NA

NA

K

?aReference (5 & 21).

Working Properties: The timber machines easily though the grain tends to tear around large knots. Easy to nail and glue; takes paint and varnish well.

Durability: Sapwood prone to attack by stain fungi and vulnerable to boring insects. Heartwood durable above ground.

Preservation: Sapwood readily treated with open tank and pressure methods. Plantation grown stock is mostly sapwood. Heartwood moderately resistant.

Uses: Veneers and plywood, pulp and paper, fiber and particleboard, light construction, boxes and crates, millwork.

Toxicity: May cause allergic contact dermatitis (11, 16 & 22).

Additional Reading & References Cited (in parentheses):

1. Albala, H. [Mechanical and associated properties of Pinus radiata wood. Santiago, Chile: Instituto Forestal; 1965.

2. Berni, C. A.; Bolza, E., and Christensen, F. J. South American timbers. The characteristics, properties and uses of 190 species. CSIRO, Division of Building Research; 1979.

3. Bier, H. Bending properties of structural timber from a 28 year old stand of New Zealand Pinus radiata. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science. 1985; 15(2):233-250.

4. Boas, T. H. The commercial timbers of Australia, their properties and uses. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO; 1947.

5. Boone, R. S.; Kozlik, C. J.; Bois, P. J., and Wengert, E. M. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL-GTR-57; 1988.

6. Chidester, G. H. and Schafer, E. R. Pulping of Latin American woods. Madison, WI, USA: USDA, Forest Service, FPL Report No. 2012; 1965.

7. Cockrell, R. A. Mechanical properties of California grown monterey pine. Journal of Agricultural Science, California Agricultural Experiment Station. 1959; 28(8):227-238.

8. Ditchburne, N.; Kloot, N. H., and Rumball, B. The mechanical properties of Australian grown Pinus radiata D. Don. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO; 1975.

9. Dohr, A. W. and Drow, J. T. The mechanical properties of insignis pine (Pinus radiata) from Chile. Madison, WI, USA: USDA, Forest Service, FPL (unpublished data); 1948.

10. DPI. Radiata pine. Queensland, Australia: DPI, Queensland Forest Service, Timber Species, No. 22.; 1990.

11. Hausen, B. M. Woods injurious to human health. A manual. New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter; 1981.

12. Henderson, F. Y. A handbook of softwoods. London: HMSO; 1977.

13. Instituto Forestal. Chile, exportador de Pinus radiata. Santiago, Chile: Instituto Forestal; 1974.

14. Kloot, H. Reassessment of radiata pine for structural purposes. CSIRO Forest Products Newsletter. 1974(399):1-3.

15. Little, Jr. E. L. Checklist of United States Trees (Native and Naturalized). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, USDA, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook No. 541; 1979.

16. Mitchell, J. and Rook, A. Botanical dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver, BC: Greenglass Ltd.; 1979.

17. Perez, V. A. G.; Martinez, L. B., and Del Rio, E. E. [Classification of Pinus radiata D. Don. according to endurance.]. Santiago, Chile: Instituto Forestal; 1973.

18. Rendle, B. J. World timbers 3. Asia, Australia and New Zealand. London: Ernest Benn Ltd.; 1970.

19. Sangüesa, H. A. [Mechanical properties of the wood of Pinus radiata.]. Santiago, Chile: Instituto Forestal; 1965.

20. Scott, C. W. Pinus radiata. Rome, Italy: FAO Forestry and Forest Products Studies, No. 14; 1960.

21. Simpson, W. T. Dry kiln operator's manual. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 188; 1991.

22. Woods, B. and Calnan, C. D. Toxic woods. British Journal of Dermatology. 1976; 95(13):1-97.