Pinus pungens Lamb.

 

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Family: Pinaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Table Mountain Pine

 

 

 

The genus Pinus is composed of about 100 species native to temperate and tropical regions of the world. Wood of pine can be separated microscopically into the white, red and yellow pine groups. The word pinus is the classical Latin name. The word pungens means sharp point, from the peculiar, stout, hooked spines on the cones. Table mountain pine is one of the southern pines.

Other Common Names: Black pine, hickory pine, mountain pine, pin pungens, pino pungens, poverty pine, prickly pine, pungens tall, pungens-pijn, ridge pine, southern mountain pine, table mountain pine, Table Mountain pine, yellow pine.

Distribution: Table mountain pine is native to the Appalachian Mountain region from Pennsylvania southwest to eastern West Virginia, Virginia, northwestern South Carolina, northeastern Georgia and eastern Tennessee. Also locally in New Jersey and Delaware.

The Tree: In the Great Smoky Mountains, table mountain pine trees reach heights of 95 feet, with diameters of 3 feet. In other areas, trees may grow to heights of 66 feet, with a diameter of over 1 foot.

General Wood Characteristics: The sapwood of table mountain pine is a yellowish white, while the heartwood is a reddish brown. The wood is soft, weak and brittle, very coarse grained and knotty with conspicuous resin ducts. It is moderately heavy (but lighter than other southern pines). It can be straight grained, has a medium texture and is difficult to work with hand tools. It hold nails well, but is not easy to glue. It is rated as slightly or nonresistant to heartwood decay. The sapwood is easily impregnated with preservatives.

 

 

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.49

1.27

7500

3540

560

8.1

490

960

Dry

0.55

1.55

11600

6830

1210

8.7

660

1200

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (153).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

6.8

NA

NA

Radial

3.4

NA

NA

Volumetric

10.9

NA

NA

References: (153).

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Conventional temperature/moisture content-controlled schedulesa


Condition

4/4, 5/4
stock

6/4 stock

8/4
stock

10/4
stock

12/4
stock

British schedule
4/4 stock

Standard

T13-C6

T12-C5

T12-C5

T10-C4

T10-C4

L

Highest Quality

279

279

279

T10-C4

T10-C4

NA

aReference (28, 92, 185).

 

Conventional temperature/time-controlled schedulesa

 

Lower grades

Upper grades


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

12/4, 16/4 stock

Standard

281

NA

282

281

NA

282

284

aReferences (28, 92, 185).

 

High temperaturea


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock


Other products

Standard

401/402

NA

NA

2 by 4's 403

2 by 10's 403

4 by 4's 404

aReferences (28, 92, 185).

 

 

Working Properties: It can be straight grained, has a medium texture and is difficult to work with hand tools. It hold nails well, but is not easy to glue.

Durability: It is rated as slightly or nonresistant to heartwood decay.

Preservation: The sapwood is easily impregnated with preservatives

 

Uses: With respect to the southern pines, lumber of lower density and strength finds many uses for building material, such as interior finish, sheathing, subflooring, and joists and for boxes, pallets, and crates. Table mountain pine is used for pulpwood, low grade saw timber and firewood.

Toxicity: In general, working with pine wood may cause dermatitis, allergic bronchial asthma or rhinitis in some individuals (6, 10 & 13).

 

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

1. Boone, R. S.; Kozlik, C. J.; Bois, P. J., and Wengert, E. M. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL-GTR-57; 1988.

2. Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B., and Harrison, S. G. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae. London, UK: Edward Arnold Ltd.; 1966.

3. Della-Bianca, L. Pinus pungens Lamb. Table Mountain Pine. in: Burns, R. M. and Honkala, B. H., tech. coords. Silvics of North America. Volume 1, Conifers. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1990; pp. 425-432.

4. Elias, T. S. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. New York, NY: van Nostrand Reinhold Co.; 1980.

5. Gaby, L. I. The southern pines, an American wood. Washington, DC, USA: USDA Forest Service, FS-256; 1985.

6. Hausen, B. M. Woods injurious to human health. A manual. New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter; 1981.

7. Koch, P. Utilization of the southern pines. I. The raw material. II. Processing. Washington, DC, USA.: USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 420.; 1972.

8. Little, jr. E. L. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Washington, DC: USGPO, USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 541; 1979.

9. Markwardt, L. J. and Wilson, T. R. C. Strength and related properties of woods grown in the United States. Washington, DC: USGPO, USDA Forest Service, Tech. Bull. No. 479; 1935.

10. Mitchell, J. and Rook, A. Botanical dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver, BC: Greenglass Ltd.; 1979.

11. Simpson, W. T. Dry kiln operator's manual. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 188; 1991.

12. Sternitzke, H. S. and Nelson, T. C. The southern pines of the United States. Economic Botany. 1970; 24(2):142-150.

13. Woods, B. and Calnan, C. D. Toxic woods. British Journal of Dermatology. 1976; 95(13):1-97.