Pinus jeffreyi

 

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Family: Pinaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Jeffrey Pine

 

 

 

The genus Pinus is composed of about 100 species native to temperate and tropical regions of the world. Wood of pine can be separated microscopically into the white, red and yellow pine groups. The word pinus is the classical Latin name. The word jeffreyi is used in honor of the trees discoverer, John Jeffrey (1826-1853), Scotch botanical explorer who collected seeds and plants in Oregon and California (1850-1853) for introduction in Scotland. Jeffrey pine was first classified as a variety of ponderosa pine, and has identical wood properties of ponderosa pine.

Other Common Names: Blackbark pine, blackwood pine, bull pine, Jeffrey pijn, Jeffrey pine, Jeffrey's pine, Jeffrey-tall, peninsula black pine, peninsula pine, pin de Jeffrey, pino de Jeffrey, pino di Jeffrey, pino negro, pinos, ponderosa pine, redbark pine, redbark sierra pine, sapwood pine, truckee pine, western black pine, western yellow pine.

Distribution: Jeffrey pine is native to the mountains of southwestern Oregon south in California through the Sierra Nevada to western Nevada and to southern California. Also in northern Mexico.

The Tree: Jeffrey pine trees reach heights of 200 feet, with diameters of 6 feet. A survivor of early timber harvests was measured at 175 feet tall and 7.5 feet in diameter. Jeffrey pines trees may live to 500 years of age.

General Wood Characteristics: Jeffrey pine is identical to ponderosa pine, with respect to its mechanical and physical properties. Both are in the Yellow Pine Group. The following general information is for ponderosa pine. The heartwood is yellowish to light reddish brown or orange and the wide sapwood is nearly white to pale yellow. In young trees, the sapwood can make up over half of the volume, while in older trees, the sapwood may be two inches or more wide. The wood of the outer portions of saw timber size is moderately light in weight, moderately low in strength, moderately soft, moderately stiff, and moderately low in shock resistance. It is moderately weak in bending and in endwise compression. It is straight grained (but can be dimpled on the tangential surface) and has moderately small shrinkage. It is quite uniform in texture and has little tendency to warp and twist.

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.37

.98

5000

2370

350

4.7

340

690

Dry

0.42

1.24

9300

5530

790

6.6

500

1210

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (153).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

6.7

5.0

2.1

Radial

4.4

3.1

1.3

Volumetric

9.9

7.7

3.2

References: (153, 192).

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Conventional temperature/moisture content-controlled schedulesa


Condition

4/4, 5/4
stock

6/4 stock

8/4
stock

10/4
stock

12/4
stock

British schedule
4/4 stock

Standard

T9-C6

T7-C5

T7-C5

T7-A4

T7-A4

L

Anti-brown stain

T7-E6

NA

T7-E5

NA

NA

NA

aReference (28, 185).

 

Conventional temperature/time-controlled schedulesa

 

Lower grades

Upper grades


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

12/4, 16/4 stock

Standard

291

291

291

299

300

301

302

aReferences (28, 185).

 

High temperaturea


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock


Other products

Standard

400

400

400

NA

aReferences (28, 185).

 

Working Properties: Jeffrey pine (ponderosa pine) works easily with both hand and machine tools. It finishes and glues well, but the presence of knots make painting difficult. It is resistant to splitting when nailed, but is rated average in nail holding ability.

Durability: Jeffrey pine (ponderosa pine) is not durable unless treated with a preservative, under conditions favorable to decay. It is rated as slightly to nonresistant to decay. Can be susceptible to attack by drywood termites, ambrosia (pinhole borer) beetles, longhorn beetles and Buprestid beetles.

Preservation: Like ponderosa pine, the sapwood of Jeffrey pine is permeable to preservatives, while the heartwood is moderately resistant to preservative treatments.

Uses: Jeffrey pine (ponderosa pine) is used mainly for lumber and to a lesser extent for piles, poles, posts, mine timbers, veneer, and railroad crossties. The clear wood is especially well suited for millwork, such as window frames, doors, shelving, moldings, sash doors, blinds, paneling, mantels, trim, and built-in cases and cabinets. Lower grade lumber is used for boxes and crates. Much of the lumber of intermediate or lower grades goes into sheathing, subflooring, and roof boards. Knotty Jeffrey pine is used for interior finish. A considerable amount now goes into particleboard and paper.

Toxicity: In general, working with pine wood may cause dermatitis, allergic bronchial asthma or rhinitis in some individuals (4,9&12).

 

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

1. Boone, R. S.; Kozlik, C. J.; Bois, P. J., and Wengert, E. M. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL-GTR-57; 1988.

2. Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B., and Harrison, S. G. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae. London, UK: Edward Arnold Ltd.; 1966.

3. Elias, T. S. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. New York, NY: van Nostrand Reinhold Co.; 1980.

4. Hausen, B. M. Woods injurious to human health. A manual. New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter; 1981.

5. Jenkinson, J. L. Pinus jeffrey Grev. & Balf. Jeffrey Pine. in: Burns, R. M. and Honkala, B. H., tech. coords. Silvics of North America. Volume 1, Conifers. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1990; pp. 359-369.

6. Little, jr. E. L. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Washington, DC: USGPO, USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 541; 1979.

7. Lowrey, D. P. Ponderosa pine, an American wood. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service, FS-254; 1984.

8. Markwardt, L. J. and Wilson, T. R. C. Strength and related properties of woods grown in the United States. Washington, DC: USGPO, USDA Forest Service, Tech. Bull. No. 479; 1935.

9. Mitchell, J. and Rook, A. Botanical dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver, BC: Greenglass Ltd.; 1979.

10. Simpson, W. T. Dry kiln operator's manual. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 188; 1991.

11. Summitt, R. and Sliker, A. CRC handbook of materials science. Vol. 4. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.; 1980.

12. Woods, B. and Calnan, C. D. Toxic woods. British Journal of Dermatology. 1976; 95(13):1-97.