Pinus glabra Walt.

 

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Family: Pinaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Spruce Pine

 

 

 

The genus Pinus is composed of about 100 species native to temperate and tropical regions of the world. Wood of pine can be separated microscopically into the white, red and yellow pine groups. The word pinus is the classical Latin name. The word glabra means glabrous or smooth, referring to the bark.

Other Common Names: Amerikaanse witte pijn, black pine, bottom white pine, cedar pine, kings-tree, lowland spruce pine, pin blanc americain, pino blanco americano, poor pine, southern white pine, spruce lowland pine, spruce pine, Walter pine, white pine.

Distribution: Spruce pine is native to the coastal plain from eastern South Carolina to northern Florida and west to southeastern Louisiana.

The Tree: Spruce pine trees reach heights of 100 feet, with diameters of 3 feet. A record tree has been recorded at 123 feet tall, with a diameter of over 4 feet. In stands, spruce pine self prunes to a height of 60 feet.

General Wood Characteristics: The sapwood of spruce pine is a yellowish white, while the heartwood is a reddish brown. The sapwood is usually wide in second growth stands. Heartwood begins to form when the tree is about 20 years old. In old, slow-growth trees, sapwood may be only 1 to 2 inches in width. The wood of spruce pine is very heavy and strong, very stiff, hard and moderately high in shock resistance. It also has a straight grain, medium texture and is difficult to work with hand tools. It ranks high in nail holding capacity, but there may be difficulty in gluing. All the southern pines have moderately large shrinkage but are stable when properly seasoned. The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in resistance to decay. The sapwood is more easily impregnated with preservatives.

 

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.41

1.00

6000

2840

280

NA

450

900

Dry

NA

1.23

10400

5650

730

NA

660

1490

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (59).

Drying and shrinkage: No shrinkage information available at this time.

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Conventional temperature/moisture content-controlled schedulesa


Condition

4/4, 5/4
stock

6/4 stock

8/4
stock

10/4
stock

12/4
stock

British schedule
4/4 stock

Standard

T13-C6

T12-C5

T12-C5

T10-C4

T10-C4

L

Highest Quality

279

279

279

T10-C4

T10-C4

NA

aReference (28, 91, 185).

 

Conventional temperature/time-controlled schedulesa

 

Lower grades

Upper grades


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

12/4, 16/4 stock

Standard

281

NA

282

281

NA

282

284

aReferences (28, 91, 185).

 

High temperaturea


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock


Other products

Standard

401/402

NA

NA

2 by 4 403

2 by 10 403

4 by 4 404

aReferences (28, 91 185). All the southern pines have moderately high shrinkage but are stable when properly seasoned.

 

 

Working Properties: Spruce pine is difficult to work with hand tools. It ranks high in nail holding capacity, but there may be difficulty in gluing.

Durability: The heartwood is rated as moderate to low in resistance to decay.

Preservation: The sapwood is more easily impregnated with preservatives.

Uses: The denser and higher strength southern pine is used extensively in construction of factories, warehouses, bridges, trestles, and docks in the form of stringers, and for roof trusses, beams, posts, joists, and piles. Lumber of lower density and strength finds many uses for building material, such as interior finish, sheathing, subflooring, and joists and for boxes, pallets, and crates. Southern pine is also used also for tight and slack cooperage. When used for railroad crossties, piles, poles and mine timbers, it is usually treated with preservatives. The manufacture of structural grade plywood from southern pine has become a major wood-using industry.

 

Toxicity: In general, working with pine wood may cause dermatitis, allergic bronchial asthma or rhinitis in some individuals (5, 9 & 14).

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

1. Boone, R. S.; Kozlik, C. J.; Bois, P. J., and Wengert, E. M. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL-GTR-57; 1988.

2. Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B., and Harrison, S. G. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae. London, UK: Edward Arnold Ltd.; 1966.

3. Elias, T. S. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. New York, NY: van Nostrand Reinhold Co.; 1980.

4. Gaby, L. I. The southern pines, an American wood. Washington, DC, USA: USDA Forest Service, FS-256; 1985.

5. Hausen, B. M. Woods injurious to human health. A manual. New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter; 1981.

6. Koch, P. Utilization of the southern pines. I. The raw material. II. Processing. Washington, DC, USA.: USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 420.; 1972.

7. Kossuth, S. V. and Michael, J. L. Pinus glabra Walt. Spruce Pine. in: Burns, R. M. and Honkala, B. H., tech. coords. Silvics of North America. Volume 1, Conifers. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1990; pp. 355-358.

8. Little, jr. E. L. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Washington, DC: USGPO, USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 541; 1979.

9. Mitchell, J. and Rook, A. Botanical dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver, BC: Greenglass Ltd.; 1979.

10. Simpson, W. T. Dry kiln operator's manual. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 188; 1991.

11. Sternitzke, H. S. and Nelson, T. C. The southern pines of the United States. Economic Botany. 1970; 24(2):142-150.

12. Summitt, R. and Sliker, A. CRC handbook of materials science. Vol. 4. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.; 1980.

13. USDA. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 72; 1974.

14. Woods, B. and Calnan, C. D. Toxic woods. British Journal of Dermatology. 1976; 95(13):1-97.