Pinus flexilis James

 

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Family: Pinaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Limber Pine

 

 

 

The genus Pinus is composed of about 100 species native to temperate and tropical regions of the world. Wood of pine can be separated microscopically into the white, red and yellow pine groups. The word pinus is the classical Latin name. The word flexilis means flexible or limber.

Other Common Names: Bull pine, Californische buigzame pijn, hallarin, hange kiefer, jack pine, limber pine, limber-twig pine, mjuk-tall, pin blanc de l'ouest, pin pliable de l'ouest, pino enano, pino flessibile, pino flexible, pino huiyoco, pino nayar, Rocky Mountain pine, Rocky Mountain white pine, western white pine, white pine.

Distribution: Limber pine is native to the Rocky Mountain region, from southwestern Alberta and southeastern British Columbia, south in the mountains of Montana, Idaho, Nevada and central and southern California, east to northern New Mexico and north to Colorado and Wyoming. Also locally in northeastern Oregon, northern Arizona, western Nebraska, the Black Hills of South Dakota and southwestern North Dakota.

The Tree: Limber pine trees reach heights of 50 feet, with diameters of 2 feet. Exceptional trees have been reported to be 80 feet tall and 4 feet in diameter.

General Wood Characteristics: The wood of limber pine is light, soft, close grained and is easily worked with tools. The sapwood is narrow and a creamy white, while the heartwood is brownish to orange-yellow and may turn reddish brown upon exposure to the air.

 

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.37

0.80

5200

2410

320

5.2

310

740

Dry

0.42

1.17

9100

5290

720

6.8

430

800

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (153).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

5.1

NA

NA

Radial

2.4

NA

NA

Volumetric

8.2

NA

NA

References: (153).

Kiln drying schedules: No information available at this time.

Working Properties: Limber pine works well with tools.

Durability: No information available at this time.

Preservation: No information available at this time.

Uses: Boxes, railroad ties, poles, mine timbers, locally for fuel.

Toxicity: In general, working with pine wood may cause dermatitis, allergic bronchial asthma or rhinitis in some individuals (3,6&8).

 

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

1. Boone, R. S.; Kozlik, C. J.; Bois, P. J., and Wengert, E. M. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL-GTR-57; 1988.

2. Hausen, B. M. Woods injurious to human health. A manual. New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter; 1981.

3. Hyam, R. and Pankhurst, R. Plant and their names. A concise dictionary. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 1995.

4. Laacke, R. J. Abies concolor (Gord. & Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr. Subalpine Fir. in: Burns, R. M. and Honkala, B. H., tech. coords. Silvics of North America. Volume 1, Conifers. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1990; pp. 36-46.

5. Little, jr. E. L. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Washington, DC: USGPO, USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 541; 1979.

6. Markstrom, D. C. and McElderry, S. E. White Fir, An American Wood. Washington, DC, USA: USDA Forest Service, FS-237; 1984.

7. Mitchell, J. and Rook, A. Botanical dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver, BC: Greenglass Ltd.; 1979.

8. Record, S. J. and Hess R. W. Timbers of the new world. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 1943.

9. Simpson, W. T. Dry kiln operator's manual. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 188; 1991.

10. Summitt, R. and Sliker, A. CRC handbook of materials science. Vol. 4. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.; 1980.

11. USDA. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 72; 1974.

12. Woods, B. and Calnan, C. D. Toxic woods. British Journal of Dermatology. 1976; 95(13):1-97.