Pinus banksiana

 

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Family: Pinaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Jack Pine

 

 

 

The genus Pinus is composed of about 100 species native to temperate and tropical regions of the world. Wood of pine can be separated microscopically into the white, red and yellow pine groups. The word pinus is the classical Latin name. The word banksiana is used in dedication to Joseph Banks (1743-1820), director of Kew Gardens, England, botanical collector, and patron of sciences, to whom its author was obliged for first knowledge of it.

Other Common Names: Banks-den, Banksian pine, banksiana-tall, Banks-pijn, banks-tall, black jack pine, black pine, blackjack pine, British Honduras pitch pine, bull pine, Canada horn pine, Canada horn-cone pine, Canadian horn pine, check pine, chek pine, cypres, cypress, eastern jack-pine, grey pine, Hudson Bay pine, jack pine, jack-pine, juniper, labrador pine, northern scrub pine, pin chetif, pin de Banks, pin des rochers, pin gris, pin gris d'Amerique, pino banksiano, princess pine, scrub pine, Sir Joseph banks pine, Sir Joseph Banks pine, spruce pine, zwerg-kiefer.

Distribution: Jack pine is native to Cape Breton Islands, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Maine and central Quebec, west to northern Ontario, northern Manitoba, southwestern Keewatin, and western Mackinaw, south to extreme northwestern Indiana, Michigan, southern Ontario, northern New York and New Hampshire.

The Tree: Jack pine trees normally reach heights of 65 feet, with diameters of 10 inches. One can find exceptional trees that are 100 feet tall with a diameter of 2 feet.

General Wood Characteristics: The sapwood of jack pine is nearly white, while the heartwood is light brown to orange. The sapwood may make up one-half or more of the volume of a tree. The wood has a rather coarse texture and is somewhat resinous. It is moderately light in weight, moderately low in bending strength and compressive strength, moderately low in shock resistance, and low in stiffness. It also has moderately small shrinkage. Lumber from jack pine is generally knotty. In lumber, jack pine is sometimes included along with other pines with which it grows, including red pine and eastern white pine.

 

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.40

1.07

6000

2950

300

7.2

400

750

Dry

0.46

1.35

9900

5660

580

8.3

570

1170

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (56).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

6.6

NA

NA

Radial

3.7

NA

NA

Volumetric

10.3

NA

NA

References: (56).

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Conventional temperature/moisture content-controlled schedulesa


Condition

4/4, 5/4
stock

6/4 stock

8/4
stock

10/4
stock

12/4
stock

British schedule
4/4 stock

Lower grades

T9-C4

NA

T9-C3

NA

NA

NA

Upper grades

T12-B4

NA

T11-B4

T7-A3

T7-A3

L

aReference (28, 185).

 

Conventional temperature/time-controlled schedulesa

 

Lower grades

Upper grades


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

12/4, 16/4 stock

Standard

 

291

291

 

291

 

291

 

NA

 

NA

 

NA

 

aReferences (28, 185).

 

High temperaturea


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock


Other products

Standard

400

400

400

Studs/412

aReferences (28, 185).

 

 

Working Properties: Jack pine ranks average in workability with tools. It has lower nail holding capacity than red pine, and it is more liable to split when nailed.

Durability: Jack pine’s durability is very limited when exposed to conditions favorable to decay (9).

Preservation: Penetration with preservatives is difficult (9).

Uses: Jack pine is used for pulpwood, box lumber, pallets, and fuel. Less important uses include railroad crossties, mine timber, slack cooperage, poles, and posts.

Toxicity: In general, working with pine wood may cause dermatitis, allergic bronchial asthma or rhinitis in some individuals (4,7&15).

 

 

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

 

1. Boone, R. S.; Kozlik, C. J.; Bois, P. J., and Wengert, E. M. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL-GTR-57; 1988.

2. Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B., and Harrison, S. G. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae. London, UK: Edward Arnold Ltd.; 1966.

3. Elias, T. S. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. New York, NY: van Nostrand Reinhold Co.; 1980.

4. Hausen, B. M. Woods injurious to human health. A manual. New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter; 1981.

5. Henderson, F. Y. A handbook of softwoods. London: HMSO; 1977.

6. Little, jr. E. L. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Washington, DC: USGPO, USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 541; 1979.

7. Mitchell, J. and Rook, A. Botanical dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver, BC: Greenglass Ltd.; 1979.

8. Record, S. J. and Hess R. W. Timbers of the new world. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 1943.

9. Rudolph, T. D. Jack pine, an American wood. Washington, DC, USA: USDA Forest Service, FS-252; 1985.

10. Rudolph, T. D. and Laidly, P. R. Pinus banksiana Lamb. Jack Pine. in: Burns, R. M. and Honkala, B. H., tech. coords. Silvics of North America. Volume 1, Conifers. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1990; pp. 280-293.

11. Rudolph, T. D. and Yeatman, C. W. Genetics of jack pine. Washington, DC, USA.: USDA Forest Service, Res. Pap. WO-38.; 1982.

12. Simpson, W. T. Dry kiln operator's manual. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 188; 1991.

13. Summitt, R. and Sliker, A. CRC handbook of materials science. Vol. 4. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.; 1980.

14. USDA. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 72; 1974.

15. Woods, B. and Calnan, C. D. Toxic woods. British Journal of Dermatology. 1976; 95(13):1-97.