Picea glauca

 

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Family: Pinaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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White Spruce

 

 

 

The genus Picea is composed of about 30 species native to North America [12] and Eurasia [20]. The word picea comes from the ancient Latin name (pix, picis = pitch) of a pitchy pine, probably Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The word glauca means glaucous, or covered with a bloom, referring to the blue green foliage.

Other Common Names: Adirondack spruce, Alberta spar, Alberta spruce, Alberta white spruce, Alberta-gran, Black Hills spruce, blue spruce, bog spruce, Canadese spar, Canadese witte spar, Canadian spruce, cat spruce, double spruce, eastern blue spruce, eastern Canadian spruce, eastern spruce, epicea canadien, epinette a biere, epinette blanche, epinette grise, epinette jaune, he-balsam, juniper, labrador spruce, Maritime spruce, New Brunswick spruce, northern spruce, Nova Scotia spruce, picea canadese, picea de Alberta, picea de Canada, picea del Canada, picea di Alberta, pine, Porsild spruce, Quebec spruce, sapin blanc, sapin de Normandie, sapinette blanche, sapinette d'Alberta, single spruce, skunk spruce, spruce pine, spruces d'america, St. John's spruce, transcontinental spruce, vit-gran, water spruce, western white spruce, white spruce, wit-spar, yew pine.

Distribution: White spruce is native to widespread areas across northern North America near the northern limit of trees, from Newfoundland, Labrador and northern Quebec, west to the Hudson Bay, northwest Mackinaw and northwestern and southwestern Alaska, south to southern British Columbia, southern Alberta and northwestern Montana, east to southern Manitoba, central Minnesota, central Michigan, southern Ontario, northern New York and Maine. Also locally in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming.

The Tree: White spruce trees reach heights of 110 feet, with diameters of 2 feet. Exceptionally large trees have been reported with a height of 150 feet and a diameter of 4 feet.

General Wood Characteristics: The wood dries easily and is stable after drying, is moderately light in weight and easily worked, has moderate shrinkage, and is moderately strong, stiff, tough, and hard. It is straight, even grained, soft and finishes with a satin like surface. The wood is creamy white or straw colored, and there is little difference between the heartwood and sapwood.

 

 

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.33

1.14

5000

2350

210

6.0

320

640

Dry

0.45

1.43

9400

5180

430

7.7

480

970

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (56).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

8.2

NA

NA

Radial

4.7

NA

NA

Volumetric

13.7

NA

NA

References: (192).

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Conventional temperature/moisture content-controlled schedulesa


Condition

4/4, 5/4
stock

6/4 stock

8/4
stock

10/4
stock

12/4
stock

British schedule
4/4 stock

Standard

T11-B4

NA

T10-B3

T5-A2

T5-A2

K

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

aReference (28, 185, 73)

 

Conventional temperature/time-controlled schedulesa

 

Lower grades

Upper grades


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

12/4, 16/4 stock

Standard

291

291

291

291

289

289

288

aReferences (28, 185)

 

High temperaturea


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock


Other products

Standard

400

400

400

Studs/412

aReferences (28, 185)

 

 

Working Properties: White spruce is easily worked.

Durability: Spruces are rated as slightly or nonresistant to heartwood decay (12).

Preservation: White spruce is rated as resistant to preservative treatment (6).

Uses: The largest use of eastern spruce is for pulpwood. It is also used for framing material, general millwork, boxes and crates, and piano sounding boards.

Toxicity: Working with fresh spruce wood may cause dermatitis, or other contact sensitivity (5,8&13).

 

 

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

1. Anon. Picea (spruces), white spruce. Washington, DC, USA: USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 271, FS-152.; 1956.

2. Boone, R. S.; Kozlik, C. J.; Bois, P. J., and Wengert, E. M. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL-GTR-57; 1988.

3. Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B., and Harrison, S. G. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae. London, UK: Edward Arnold Ltd.; 1966.

4. Elias, T. S. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. New York, NY: van Nostrand Reinhold Co.; 1980.

5. Hausen, B. M. Woods injurious to human health. A manual. New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter; 1981.

6. Henderson, F. Y. A handbook of softwoods. London: HMSO; 1977.

7. Little, Jr. E. L. Alligator juniper. Tucson, AZ, USA: USDA Forest Service, Southwestern Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note No. 30.; 1938.

8. Mitchell, J. and Rook, A. Botanical dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver, BC: Greenglass Ltd.; 1979.

9. Nienstaedt, H. and Zasada, J. C. Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, White Spruce. in: Burns, R. M. and Honkala, B. H., tech. coords. Silvics of North America. Volume 1, Conifers. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1990; pp. 204-226.

10. Simpson, W. T. Dry kiln operator's manual. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 188; 1991.

11. Summitt, R. and Sliker, A. CRC handbook of materials science. Vol. 4. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.; 1980.

12. USDA. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 72; 1974.

13. Woods, B. and Calnan, C. D. Toxic woods. British Journal of Dermatology. 1976; 95(13):1-97.