Picea engelmannii

 

this page uses English units of measure

click here to view the file in metric units

 

Family: Pinaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

click to print or download the file in .pdf format

 

Engelmann Spruce

 

 

 

The genus Picea is composed of about 30 species native to North America [12] and Eurasia [20]. The word picea comes from the ancient Latin name (pix, picis = pitch) of a pitchy pine, probably Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The word engelmannii is named for George Engelmann (1809-1884), German born physician and botanist of St. Louis, an authority on conifers who first recognized this species as undescribed.

Other Common Names: Arizona spruce, balsam, Columbian spruce, Engelmann elm, Engelmann spar, Engelmann spruce, Engelmann-fichte, Engelmanns-gran, epicea d'Engelmann, epinette d'Engelmann, mountain spruce, picea de Englemann, picea di Engelmann, pino real, real pino, Rocky Mountain spruce, silver spruce, spruces d'america, western white spruce, white pine, white spruce.

Distribution: Engelmann spruce is native to the Rocky Mountain region from southwestern Alberta and central British Columbia, south in the high mountains from Washington to northern California, east to eastern Nevada, southeastern Arizona and southern New Mexico and north to Wyoming and central Montana. About two thirds of the lumber is produced in the southern Rocky Mountain States. Most of the remainder comes from the northern Rocky Mountain States and Oregon.

The Tree: Engelmann spruce trees reach heights of 130 feet, with diameters of 3 feet. Larger trees may exceed 130 feet in height and 3.5 feet in diameter.

General Wood Characteristics: The heartwood of Engelmann spruce is nearly white with a slight tinge of red. The sapwood varies from 3/4 inch to 2 inches in width and is often difficult to distinguish from heartwood. The wood has medium to fine texture and is without characteristic taste or odor. It is generally straight grained. Engelmann spruce rated as light in weight. It is low in strength as a beam or post. It is limber, soft, low in shock resistance, and has moderately small shrinkage. The lumber typically contains numerous small knots.

 

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.33

1.03

4700

2180

200

5.1

260

640

Dry

0.35

1.30

9300

4480

410

6.4

390

1200

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (59).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

7.1

5.3

2.2

Radial

3.8

2.7

1.1

Volumetric

11.0

8.3

3.5

References: 0% (56)
6% and 20% MC (90).

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Conventional temperature/moisture content-controlled schedulesa


Condition

4/4, 5/4
stock

6/4 stock

8/4
stock

10/4
stock

12/4
stock

British schedule
4/4 stock

Lower grades

T7-B6

T5-B5

T5-B5

NA

NA

NA

Upper grades

T9-E5

NA

T7-E4

T7-A4

T7-A3

K

aReference (28, 185).

 

Conventional temperature/time-controlled schedulesa

 

Lower grades

Upper grades


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

12/4, 16/4 stock

Standard

291

291

291

291

289

289

288

aReferences (28, 185).

 

High temperaturea


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock


Other products

Standard

400

400

400

4- by 6-in. decking (405)
Studs (406)

aReferences (28, 184).

 

 

Working Properties: Engelmann spruce is easliy worked (14).

Durability: Spruces are rated as slightly or nonresistant to heartwood decay (14).

Preservation: Engelmann spruce is rated as resistant to preservative treatment (7).

Uses: Engelmann spruce is used principally for lumber and for mine timbers, railroad crossties, and poles. It is used also in building construction in the form of dimension lumber, flooring, sheathing, and studding. It has excellent properties for pulp and paper making.

Toxicity: Working with fresh spruce wood may cause dermatitis, or other contact sensitivity (6,11&16).

 

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

 

1. Alexander, R. R. and Shepperd, W. D. Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm. in: Burns, R. M. and Honkala, B. H., tech. coords. Silvics of North America. Volume 1, Conifers. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1990; pp. 187-203.

2. Boone, R. S.; Kozlik, C. J.; Bois, P. J., and Wengert, E. M. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL-GTR-57; 1988.

3. Dallimore, W.; Jackson, A. B., and Harrison, S. G. A handbook of Coniferae and Ginkgoaceae. London, UK: Edward Arnold Ltd.; 1966.

4. Drow, J. T. Mechanical properties of Engelmann spruce. Madison, WI, USA: USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, Report No. 1944-4; 1960.

5. Elias, T. S. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. New York, NY: van Nostrand Reinhold Co.; 1980.

6. Hausen, B. M. Woods injurious to human health. A manual. New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter; 1981.

7. Henderson, F. Y. A handbook of softwoods. London: HMSO; 1977.

8. Hofmann, J. V. Engelmann spruce. The Timberman. 1922; 23(9):33-36.

9. Little, jr. E. L. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Washington, DC: USGPO, USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 541; 1979.

10. Markstrom, D. C. and Alexander, R. R. Engelmann spruce, an American wood. Washington, DC, USA: USDA, Forest Service, FS-264; 1984.

11. Mitchell, J. and Rook, A. Botanical dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver, BC: Greenglass Ltd.; 1979.

12. Simpson, W. T. Dry kiln operator's manual. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 188; 1991.

13. Summitt, R. and Sliker, A. CRC handbook of materials science. Vol. 4. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.; 1980.

14. USDA. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 72; 1974.

15. Western Pine Association. Engelmann spruce of the western pine region, its properties, uses and grades. Portland, OR, USA: Western Pine Association; 1957.

16. ?Woods, B. and Calnan, C. D. Toxic woods. British Journal of Dermatology. 1976; 95(13):1-97.