Abies lasiocarpa

 

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Family: Pinaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Subalpine Fir

 

 

 

The genus Abies (True Firs) is composed of about 40 species native to North America [9], Central America [7], Africa [2], Europe [1] and Eurasia [25]. There are two recognized varieties of this species, the typical Subalpine Fir [Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. var. lasiocarpa] and Corkbark Fir [Abies lasiocarpa var. arizonica (Merriam) Lemm.]. Abies is the classical Latin name of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) of Europe. The word lasiocarpa means with woolly or hairy fruits.

Other Common Names: Abete bianco americano, abete sughero, abeto blanco americano, abeto corcho, alpen-den, alpine fir, amerikansk vit-gran, Arizona cork fir, Arizona corkbark fir, Arizona fir, balsam, balsam fir, berg-gran, black balsam, caribou fir, cork fir, corkbark, corkbark fir, downey-cone fir, downy-cone subalpine fir, kork-gran, kurkschors-den, mountain balsam, mountain fir, Oregon balsam fir, Oregon balsam-tree, pino real blanco, pino real blanco de las, pumpkin-tree, Rocky Mountain fir, Rocky Mountains fir, sapin blanc d'Amerique, sapin concolore, sapin d'Arizona, sapin liege, subalfir, subalpine fir, western balsam, western balsam fir, white balsam, white fir.

Distribution: Subalpine Fir grows naturally in mountains from central Yukon and the eastern parts of southeast Alaska south through Alberta and British Columbia. Also, from Washington, Oregon, Idaho and western Montana south to central Colorado southern New Mexico and southeast Arizona. It also grows locally in northeast Nevada and northwest California.

The Tree: Subalpine Fir attains heights of 130 feet, with diameters of 3 feet. It grows from near sea level in the northern limits of its range to 12,000 feet in the south.

General Wood Characteristics: The wood ranges from tan to brown with shades of red or pink. The sapwood is not clearly differentiated from the heartwood. It has a medium luster and has no distinctive odor or taste. It varies from very light, soft and weak to moderately heavy, hard and strong. It is easy to work, but poorly resistant to decay,

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.31

1.05

4900

2300

190

4.4

260

700

Dry

0.32

1.29

8600

4860

390

2.9

350

1070

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (56, 192)..

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

7.4

NA

NA

Radial

2.6

NA

NA

Volumetric

9.4

NA

NA

References: (56, 185).

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Conventional temperature/moisture content-controlled schedulesa


Condition

4/4, 5/4
stock

6/4 stock

8/4
stock

10/4
stock

12/4
stock

British schedule
4/4 stock

Standard

T12-B5

NA

T12-B4

NA

NA

NA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

aReference (28, 185).

 

Conventional temperature/time-controlled schedulesa

 

Lower grades

Upper grades


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

12/4, 16/4 stock

Standard

291

291

291

294

294

294

288

aReferences (28, 185).

 

High temperaturea

Condition

 

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock


Other products

Standard

 

400

400

400/ 416

NA

aReferences (28, 184).

Working Properties: It is reported to work well.

Durability: Heartwood rated as slightly or nonresistant to decay.

Preservation: No information available at this time.

Uses: Building construction, boxes, crates, planing mill products, sashes, doors, frames, food containers and pulpwood.

Toxicity: May cause dermatitis or eczema (3,7&12).

 

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

1. Alexander, R. R.; Shearer, R. C., and Shepperd, W. D. Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt., Subalpine Fir. in: Burns, R. M. and Honkala, B. H., tech. coords. Silvics of North America. Volume 1, Conifers. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1990; pp. 60-70.

2. Boone, R. S.; Kozlik, C. J.; Bois, P. J., and Wengert, E. M. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL-GTR-57; 1988.

3. Hausen, B. M. Woods injurious to human health. A manual. New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter; 1981.

4. Hyam, R. and Pankhurst, R. Plant and their names. A concise dictionary. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 1995.

5. Little, jr. E. L. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Washington, DC: USGPO, USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 541; 1979.

6. Markstrom, D. C. and McElderry, S. E. White Fir, An American Wood. Washington, DC, USA: USDA Forest Service, FS-237; 1984.

7. Mitchell, J. and Rook, A. Botanical dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver, BC: Greenglass Ltd.; 1979.

8. Record, S. J. and Hess R. W. Timbers of the new world. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 1943.

9. Simpson, W. T. Dry kiln operator's manual. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 188; 1991.

10. Summitt, R. and Sliker, A. CRC handbook of materials science. Vol. 4. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.; 1980.

11. USDA. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 72; 1974.

12. Woods, B. and Calnan, C. D. Toxic woods. British Journal of Dermatology. 1976; 95(13):1-