Abies grandis

 

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Family: Pinaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Grand Fir

 

 

 

The genus Abies (True Firs) is composed of about 40 species native to North America [9], Central America [7], Africa [2], Europe [1] and Eurasia [25]. Abies is the classical Latin name of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) of Eur Color ope. The word grandis means large.

Other Common Names: Abete bianco americano, abete blanco americano, abeto blanco americano, amerikansk gran, balsam fir, balsam, California great fir, Californische den, giant fir, grand fir, great silver fir, groise tanne, jedle obrovska, kaempegran, kalifornische kustentanne, kalifornische reisentanne, kust-gran, kustgran, lowland fir, lowland white fir, Oregon fir, Oregon white fir, Puget Sound fir, reuzenzilverspar, rough-barked fir, sapin du Vancouver, sapin grandissime, silver fir, tall silver fir, Vancouver den, Vancouver-gran, vancouvergran, western balsam fir, western white fir, white fir, yellow fir.

Distribution: Grand Fir is native to the Northern Rocky Mountain region from southeast British Columbia south to western Montana and central Idaho, northeast from southwest British Columbia and western Washington to northwest California.

The Tree: Grand Fir trees reach heights of 140 feet, with diameters of 4 feet. They may reach heights of 250 feet, with a diameter of 5 feet.

General Wood Characteristics: The wood of Grand Fir ranges from nearly white to reddish brown. The sapwood is indistinguishable from the heartwood. It has a medium to coarse texture and is generally straight grained. It is easy to work and is dimensionally stable when dried. It is moderate to moderately low in strength, stiffness, shock resistance and in nail withdrawal resistance. It is dries easily, but may have problems with wetwood, a bacterial infection. It has good paint holding ability and is easily glued. The heartwood is not durable and is considered

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.35

1.25

5800

2940

270

5.6

360

740

Dry

0.42

1.57

8900

5290

500

7.5

490

900

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (56).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

7.5

6.0

2.5

Radial

3.4

2.7

1.1

Volumetric

11.0

8.8

3.7

References: (178, 56, 192).

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Conventional temperature/moisture content-controlled schedulesa


Condition

4/4, 5/4
stock

6/4 stock

8/4
stock

10/4
stock

12/4
stock

British schedule
4/4 stock

Standard

T12-E5

NA

T10-E4

T8-A4

T8-A3

L

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

aReference (28, 185, 74).

 

Conventional temperature/time-controlled schedulesa

 

Lower grades

Upper grades


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock

12/4, 16/4 stock

Standard

291

291

291

294

294

294

288

aReferences (28, 185).

 

High temperaturea


Condition

4/4, 5/4 stock

6/4 stock

8/4 stock


Other products

Standard

400

400

400

NA

aReferences (28, 185).

Working Properties: Grand Fir is easy to work, is moderately low in nail withdrawal resistance, is good in paint holding properties and is easily glued.

Durability: It is rated as slightly or nonresistant to heartwood decay.

Preservation: Penetration by preservatives is difficult.

Uses: Lumber, plywood, pulp for paper, framing, sheathing, subflooring, concrete forms, decking, planking, beams, posts, siding, paneling, millwork, prefabricated buildings and structural members, industrial crating and shook, furniture parts, mobile homes, fresh fruit and vegetable containers.

Toxicity: The fresh wood may cause contact dermatitis (3,8&13)

 

 

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

1. Boone, R. S.; Kozlik, C. J.; Bois, P. J., and Wengert, E. M. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL-GTR-57; 1988.

2. Foiles, M. W.; Graham, R. T., and Olson, Jr. D. F. Abies grandis (Dougl. ex D. Don) Lindl. in: Burns, R. M. and Honkala, B. H., tech. coords. Silvics of North America. Volume 1, Conifers. Washington, DC: USDA Forest Service; 1990; pp. 52-59.

3. Hausen, B. M. Woods injurious to human health. A manual. New York, NY: Walter de Gruyter; 1981.

4. Henderson, F. Y. A handbook of softwoods. London: HMSO; 1977.

5. Hyam, R. and Pankhurst, R. Plant and their names. A concise dictionary. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 1995.

6. Little, jr. E. L. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Washington, DC: USGPO, USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 541; 1979.

7. Markstrom, D. C. and McElderry, S. E. White Fir, An American Wood. Washington, DC, USA: USDA Forest Service, FS-237; 1984.

8. Mitchell, J. and Rook, A. Botanical dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver, BC: Greenglass Ltd.; 1979.

9. Record, S. J. and Hess R. W. Timbers of the new world. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press; 1943.

10. Simpson, W. T. Dry kiln operator's manual. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 188; 1991.

11. Summitt, R. and Sliker, A. CRC handbook of materials science. Vol. 4. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc.; 1980.

12. USDA. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook No. 72; 1974.

13. Woods, B. and Calnan, C. D. Toxic woods. British Journal of Dermatology. 1976; 95(13):1-97.