Salix nigra

 

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Family: Salicaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Black Willow

 

 

 

Willow (Salix sp.) is composed of 170 to 400 species native to: Eurasia [60], South America [1], Central America [19] and North America [87]. All species look alike microscopically.

Salix nigra-Dudley Willow, Goodding Willow, Southeastern Black Willow, Swamp Walnut, Tall Black Willow, Western Black Willow

Distribution:

Throughout the eastern United States, from the Atlantic coast west to Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas.

The Tree

Black Willow trees reach heights of 140 feet, with a diameter of 4 feet.

 

The Wood

General

The sapwood of Black Willow is light tan, while the heartwood is pale reddish brown to grayish brown. It has no characteristic odor or taste. It is soft, but does not splinter when dented. It is uniform in texture, and weak in bending and crushing. It rates moderately high in shock resistance, low in nail holding ability, but does not split readily due to its interlocked grain.

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.36

0.79

4,800

2,040

180

11.0

680

Dry

0.39

1.01

7,800

4,100

430

8,800

1,250

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (98).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

8.7

6.5

2.7

Radial

3.3

2.1

0.9

Volumetric

13.9

11.5

4.8

References: 0% MC (98),
6% and 20% MC (90).

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

Condition

4/4, 5/4, 6/4 stock

8/4 stock

10/4 stock

12/4 stock

16/4 stock

standard

   

   

NA

NA

NA

Working Properties: Black Willow is classed as one of the most difficult woods to machine. It glues very well and readily accepts finishes.

Durability: The wood is not durable under conditions favorable to decay, rating poorly.

Preservation: No information available at this time.

Uses: Factory lumber, veneer, box lumber, pulpwood, furniture, paneling, interior trim, cabinetry, artificial limbs, fiber board, slack cooperage, excelsior, novelties, toys, wooden shoes, polo balls and carvings.

Toxicity: No information available at this time.

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

6. Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois & E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry kiln schedules for ?commercial woods - temperate and tropical. USDA Forest Service, FPL ?General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57.

29. Elias, T.S. 1980. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. ?Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 948 pp.

40. Hausen, B. M. 1981. Wood Injurious to Human Health: A Manual. Walter deGruyter ?& Co., Berlin, Germany; New York, NY.

52. Krinard, R.M. 1985. Black willow, an American wood. USDA Forest Service, FS-271.

55. Little, Jr., E.L. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). USDA ?Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 541, USGPO, Washington, DC.

59. Markwardt, L.J. and T.R.C. Wilson. 1935. Strength and related properties of woods ?grown in the United States. USDA Forest Service, Tech. Bull. No. 479. USGPO, ?Washington, DC.

64. Mitchell, J.; Rook, A. 1979. Botanical Dermatology: Plants and Plant Products ?Injurious to the Skin. Greenglass Ltd., 691 W. 28th Ave., Vancouver, British ?Columbia, Canada V5H 2H4.

68. Panshin, A.J. and C. de Zeeuw. 1980. Textbook of Wood Technology, 4th Ed., ?McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 722 pp.

74. Record, S.J. and R.W. Hess. 1943. Timbers of the new world. Yale University Press, ?New Haven, 640 pp.

86. Simpson, W.T. 1991. Dry kiln operator's manual. USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. ?Handbook 188.

90. Summitt, R. and A. Sliker. 1980. CRC handbook of materials science. Volume 4, ?wood. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL. 459 pp.

98. USDA Forest Service, FPL. 1974. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. ?Ag. Handbook 72.

105. Woods, B.; Calnan, C. D. 1976. Toxic Woods. British Journal of Dermatology; ?95(13):1-97 Published by Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, England OX2 ?OEL.