Ostrya spp.

 

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Family: Betulaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Hophornbeam

 

 

 

The genus Ostrya is composed of about 8 species native to: Mexico [1], Eurasia [1], eastern Asia/Japan [3] and the USA & Canada [3]. The name ostrya is Latinized from the Greek ostrua, a tree with very hard wood and most likely the European Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus).

Ostrya carpinifolia-European Hophornbeam

Ostrya chisosensis-Big Bend Hophornbeam, Chisos Hophornbeam

Ostrya knowltonii-Ironwood, Knowlton Hophornbeam, Western Hophornbeam, Wolf Hophornbeam

Ostrya virginiana*-American Hophornbeam, Deerwood, Eastern Hophornbeam, Hardhack, Hornbeam, Ironwood, Leverwood, Ostria

* commercially important

The following is for Eastern Hophornbeam:

?

Distribution

North America, from Nova Scotia to Maine, Quebec, Ontario, Michigan, Minnesota, Manitoba and North Dakota south to South Dakota, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma Texas and Mexico east to Florida.

 

The Tree

Hophornbeams are small deciduous trees with scaly rough bark. The leaves are double toothed and of alternate arrangement. The male flowers are borne on upright catkins, while the female flowers and fruits are grouped in clusters, resembling hops. They reach heights of 60 feet and 2 feet in diameter. It prefers upland soils in hilly country.

 

The Wood

General

The sapwood of Hophornbeam is wide and whitish, while the heartwood is light brown with red streaks. It has no characteristic odor or taste. It is very heavy and hard. It is sometimes confused with birch.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.63

1.15

8,500

3,570

730

13.3

1,170

1,370

Dry

0.70

1.70

14,100

7,760

1,500

14.0

1,860

1,790

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (59).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

9.6

8.0

3.3

Radial

8.2

6.8

2.8

Volumetric

18.6

15.5

6.5

Seasoning is difficult, as a result of the high density, which lengthens the drying period.

References: 0% MC (59),
6% and 20% MC (90).

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Stock

Condition

4/4, 5/4, 6/4

8/4

10/4

12/4

16/4

Standard

T6-B3

T3-B1

aReferences (6, 86).

Working Properties: Very difficult to work.

Durability: No information available at this time.

Preservation: No information available at this time.

Uses: Furniture, axles, handles, levers, mallets, splitting wedges, canes, wooden wares, novelties, fuel wood.

Toxicity: No information available at this time.

 

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

6. Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois & E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry kiln schedules for ?commercial woods - temperate and tropical. USDA Forest Service, FPL ?General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57.

29. Elias, T.S. 1980. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. ?Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 948 pp.

55. Little, Jr., E.L.1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). USDA ?Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 541, USGPO, Washington, DC.

59. Markwardt, L.J. and T.R.C. Wilson. 1935. Strength and related properties of woods ?grown in the United States. USDA Forest Service, Tech. Bull. No. 479. USGPO, ?Washington, DC.

68. Panshin, A.J. and C. de Zeeuw. 1980. Textbook of Wood Technology, 4th Ed., ?McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 722 pp.

74. Record, S.J. and R.W. Hess. 1943. Timbers of the new world. Yale University Press, ?New Haven, 640 pp.

86. Simpson, W.T. 1991. Dry kiln operator's manual. USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. ?Handbook 188.

90. Summitt, R. and A. Sliker. 1980. CRC handbook of materials science. Volume 4, ?wood. ?CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL. 459 pp.