Magnolia spp.

 

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Family: Magnoliaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Magnolia

 

 

 

Magnolia (Magnolia spp.) consists of about 80 species from Asia [50], West Indies [8], Central/South America [10] and North America [8]. Some species separations are possible based on microanatomy. The genus Magnolia is dedicated to Pierre Magnol (1638-1715), professor of botany and medicine and director of the botanic garden at Montpellier, France.

 

Magnolia acuminata*-black lin, black linn, blue magnolia, cowcumber, cucumber, cucumber magnolia, cucumbertree, cucumberwood, elkwood, magnolia, mountain magnolia, pointed-leaved magnolia, yellow cucumbertree, yellow-flower magnolia, yellow lin, yellow linn, yellow poplar, wahoo, wauhoo

Magnolia ashei-ashe magnolia, cucumbertree, sandhill magnolia

Magnolia fraseri-cucumber, cucumbertree, earleaf cucumber, earleaf cucumbertree, earleaf umbrella-tree, Fraser magnolia, Fraser umbrella, Indian bitters, Indian physic, long-leaf cucumbertree, magnolia, mountain-cucumber, mountain magnolia, mountain-oread, North Carolina bay-tree, umbrella-tree, water-lilly-tree, whahoo

Magnolia grandiflora*-bat-tree, bull-bay, big-laurel, black lin, cucumberwood, evergreen magnolia, great laurel, large-flower magnolia, laurel,
laurel bay, laurel-leaved magnolia, magnolia, mountain magnolia, southern magnolia
, sweet magnolia

Magnolia macrophylla-big-bloom, bigleaf magnolia, cowcumber, cucumber,
cucumbertree, elkbark, great-leaved magnolia, large-leaf cucumbertree, large-leaf magnolia, longleaf cucumber, long-leaved magnolia, mountain magnolia, pyramid magnolia, royal-oread, silverleaf, silverleaf magnolia, southern cucumbertree, umbrella-tree, large-leaved umbrella-tree, white cucumbertree

Magnolia pyramidata-mountain magnolia, mountain-oread, pyramid magnolia, southern cucumbertree, wood-oread

Magnolia tripetala-cucumber, cucumbertree, elk-browse, elkwood, Japanese magnolia, magnolia, umbrella magnolia, umbrella-tree, wahoo

Magnolia virginiana*-bat-tree, bay, bay-tree, beaver-tree, big laurel, black lin, bullbay, cucumberwood, Indian-bark, laurel magnolia, magnolia, mountain magnolia, small magnolia, southern sweetbay, swampbay, swamp-laurel, swamp magnolia, swamp sassafras, sweetbay, sweet magnolia, sweetbay magnolia, Virginia magnolia, white-bay, white-laurel

* commercial species

Distribution

North America

The Tree

Magnolia trees can reach heights of 80 ft (24 m), with a diameter of 3 ft (1 m).

 

 

 

 

The Wood

General

The sapwood of magnolia is creamy white, while the heartwood is light to dark brown, often with greenish to purple-black streaks or patches. The wood is even-textured and moderately heavy, fairly hard and straight grained. It resembles yellow poplar (Liriodendron spp.). Magnolia is moderately stiff, high in shock resistance, and low in shrinkage. It has no characteristic odor or taste.

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

X106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Magnolia acuminata (cucumbertree)

Green

0.44

1.56

7,400

3,140

330

10.0

520

990

Dry

0.48

1.82

12,300

6,310

570

12.2

700

1,340

Magnolia fraseri (Fraser magnolia)

Green

0.40

Dry

0.44

Magnolia grandiflora (southern magnolia)

Green

0.46

1.11

6,800

2,700

460

15.4

740

1,040

Dry

0.50

1.40

11,200

5,460

860

12.8

1,020

1,530

Magnolia virginiana (sweetbay)

Green

Dry

1.64

10,900

5,680

560

1,680

aWML = Work to maximum load.

bReference (90,98).

cReference (59).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Magnolia acuminata (cucumbertree)

Tangential

8.8

7.0

2.9

Radial

6.6

5.3

2.2

Volumetric

8.3

Magnolia grandiflora (southern magnolia)

Tangential

5.2

4.2

1.7

Radial

5.4

4.3

1.8

Volumetric

4.7

Magnolia virginiana (sweetbay)

Tangential

13.6

10.9

4.5

Radial

12.3

9.8

4.1

Volumetric

12.9

References: 0% MC (98),
6% and 20% MC (90).

 

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Stock

Condition

4/4, 5/4, 6/4

8/4

10/4

12/4

16/4

Magnolia grandiflora and Magnolia virginiana

Standard

T10-D4

T8-D3

aReferences (6, 86).

Working Properties: Magnolia has average nail-holding ability, is readily worked, and glues, paints, and finishes well.

Durability: Rated as slightly or nonresistant to heartwood decay.

Preservation: No information available at this time.

Uses: Lumber, veneer, furniture (upholstery frames), boxes, interior trim, cabinetry, doors, slats for venetian blinds, plywood.

Toxicity: The bark and leaves can be irritating (64), while the wood has been reported to cause bronchial asthma and rhinitis (40).

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

29.?Elias, T.S. 1980. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. New York: van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

40. Hausen, B.M. 1981. Woods injurious to human health. A manual. New York: Walter de Gruyter.

 

55. ?Little, Jr., E.L. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. U.S. Government Printing Office.

57. ?Maisenhelder, L. C. 1970. Magnolia. FS-245. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

59. Markwardt, L.J.; Wilson, T.R.C. 1935. Strength and related properties of woods grown in the United States. Tech. Bull. 479. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. U.S. Government Printing Office.

64. Mitchell, J.; Rook, A. 1979. Botanical dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver, BC: Greenglass Ltd.

68. Panshin, A.J.; de Zeeuw, C. 1980. Textbook of wood technology, 4th ed. New York: McGraw—Hill Book Co..

74. Record, S.J.; Hess R.W. 1943. Timbers of the new world. New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press.

90. Summitt, R.; Sliker, A. 1980. CRC handbook of materials science. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc. Vol. 4.

98. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1987. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Agric. Handb. 72. (Rev.) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 466 p.