Lithocarpus densiflorus

 

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Family: Fagaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Tanoak

 

 

 

Tanoak is a genus with about 100 species native to North America [1] and Asia/Indomalaysia [100]. It is believed to be an evolutionary link between the oaks (Quercus spp.) and chestnuts (Castanea spp.). The name lithocarpus is derived from the Greek, stone and fruit, in allusion to the hard acorns. Cyclobalanops spp., Quercus densiflora and Pasania densiflora are old scientific names.

Lithocarpus densiflorus -California chestnut oak, chestnut oak, live oak, peach oak, tanbark oak.

 

Distribution

Southwestern Oregon south to southern California, on the coast and in the Sierra Nevada.

 

The Tree

The flowers of tanoak resemble chestnut flowers, while the fruits look more like those of oaks (acorns). Tanoak grows mostly in association with redwood, Douglas-fir and California live oak. In close stands the trunks are long and rarely straight, while in the open they are short and thick. The bark is pale brown tinged with red, and can be gray in places. It can be smooth, or broken into wide, square plates by narrow seams. Tanoak is a slow-growing species, resistant to insects, but susceptible to fire injury. The flowers are produced in upright spikes or catkins, with the male flowers on the upper three-fourths of the flower spike and the female flowers (one-several) at the base. The fruits are acorns with fringed cups and thin scales. Tanoak requires moist climates and grows in association with coastal redwood, Port Orford cedar, Douglas-fir, bigleaf maple and box elder.

 

The Wood

General

The sapwood and heartwood are light to dark red brown. The wood of tanoak is diffuse porous with wide rays.

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.58

1.55

10,500

4,650

3,640

13.4

1,410

Dry

2.16

16,600

9,200

1,660

1,960

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (59).

 

 

 

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

11.7

8.0

Radial

4.9

2.7

Volumetric

17.3

References: 0% MC (98),
6% and 20% MC (90).

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Stock

Condition

4/4, 5/4, 6/4

8/4

10/4

12/4

16/4

Standard

T3-B1

T3-B1

aReferences (6, 86).

Working Properties: No information available at this time. Durability: No information available at this time.

Preservation: No information available at this time.

Uses: Flooring, crossties, fuel wood, mine timbers, baseball bats, veneers, pulpwood, furniture. Historically, bark was used for tannin extraction.

Toxicity: No information available at this time.

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

 

6.?Boone, R.S.; Kozlik, C.J.; Bois, P.J.; Wengert, E.M. 1988. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods-temperate and tropical. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-57. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.

29.?Elias, T.S. 1980. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. New York: van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

55. ?Little, Jr., E.L. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. U.S. Government Printing Office.

67. Olson, W.Z. 1955. Gluing characteristics of chinquapin, tanoak, California laurel, and madrone. Rep. 2030. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Forest Products Laboratory.

68. Panshin, A.J.; de Zeeuw, C. 1980. Textbook of wood technology, 4th ed. New York: McGraw—Hill Book Co..

69. Paul, B.H.; Dohr, A.W.; Drow, J.T. 1955. Specific gravity, shrinkage and strength of tanoak. Rep. 2041. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest
Service, Forest Products Laboratory.

74. Record, S.J.; Hess R.W. 1943. Timbers of the new world. New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press.

86. Simpson, W.T. 1991. Dry kiln operator's manual. Ag. Handb. 188. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.

90. Summitt, R.; Sliker, A. 1980. CRC handbook of materials science. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc. Vol. 4.

98. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1987. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Agric. Handb. 72. (Rev.) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.
466 p.