Juglans nigra

 

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Family: Juglandaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Black Walnut

 

 

 

The walnut/butternut group (Juglans spp.) contains 15 species which grow in South America [6], Eurasia [4] and North America [6]. The word juglans is the classic Latin name of walnut, meaning nut of Jupiter.

 

North American species of Juglans :

Juglans californica-California black walnut, California walnut, claro walnut, southern California walnut

Juglans cinerea a,b -butternut

Juglans hindsii-California black walnut, hinds black walnut, northern California walnut

Juglans major-Arizona black walnut, Arizona walnut, little walnut, Mexican walnut, western walnut

Juglans microcarpa-Arizona walnut, dwarf walnut, little walnut, Mexican walnut, river walnut, Texas black walnut, Texas walnut, western walnut

Juglans nigraa -American walnut, American black walnut, black walnut, burbank walnut, eastern black walnut, eastern walnut, gunwood, Virginia
walnut

acommercial species
binformation available on a separate fact sheet

 

 

Distribution

Black walnut is native to the eastern United States, from southern Minnesota east to Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York; south to South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama; west to Texas; and north through Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota.

The Tree

Black walnut trees reach heights of 120 ft (37 m), with a diameter of over
3 ft (1 m).

The Wood

General

The sapwood of black walnut is nearly white, while the heartwood is light brown to dark, chocolate brown, often with a purplish cast and darker streaks. The wood is heavy, hard, and stiff and has high shock resistance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.51

1.42

9,500

4,300

490

14.6

900

1,220

Dry

0.55

1.68

14,600

7,580

1,010

10.7

1,010

1,370

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (59).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

7.8

6.2

2.6

Radial

5.5

4.4

1.8

Volumetric

12.8

10.2

4.3

References: 0% MC (98),
6% and 20% MC (90).

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Stock

Condition

4/4, 5/4, 6/4

8/4

10/4

12/4

16/4

Standard

T6-d4

T3-D3

T3-D3

T3-C2

aReferences (6, 86).

Working Properties Black walnut is straight grained and easily worked with hand tools and by machine. It finishes beautifully and holds paint and stain exceptionally well. It also glues and polishes well.

Durability: Rated as very resistant to heartwood decay–one of the most durable woods, even under conditions favorable to decay.

Preservation: No information available at this time.

Uses: Furniture, fixtures, cabinets, gunstocks, novelties, interior paneling, veneer.

Toxicity: No information available at this time.

 

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

6.?Boone, R.S.; Kozlik, C.J.; Bois, P.J.; Wengert, E.M. 1988. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods-temperate and tropical. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-57. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.

29.?Elias, T.S. 1980. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. New York: van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

55. ?Little, Jr., E.L. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. U.S. Government Printing Office.

59. Markwardt, L.J.; Wilson, T.R.C. 1935. Strength and related properties of woods grown in the United States. Tech. Bull. 479. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. U.S. Government Printing Office.

68. Panshin, A.J.; de Zeeuw, C. 1980. Textbook of wood technology, 4th ed. New York: McGraw—Hill Book Co..

74. Record, S.J.; Hess R.W. 1943. Timbers of the new world. New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press.

76. Rink, G. 1985. Black walnut, an American wood. FS—270. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

86. Simpson, W.T. 1991. Dry kiln operator's manual. Ag. Handb. 188. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.

90. Summitt, R.; Sliker, A. 1980. CRC handbook of materials science. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc. Vol. 4.

98. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1987. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Agric. Handb. 72. (Rev.) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture.
466 p.