Juglans cinerea

 

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Family: Juglandaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Butternut

 

 

 

The walnut/butternut group (Juglans spp.) contains 15 species which grow in South America [6], Eurasia [4] and North America [5]. Of the butternuts, one species grows in the United States, American butternut (J. cinerea), and three in Asia (J. ailantifolia, J. cathayensis and J. mandshurica). The word juglans is the classic Latin name of walnut, meaning nut of Jupiter.

Juglans cinerea-American white walnut, gray walnut, lemon walnut, oil-bean-nut, oilnut, walnut, white walnut.

Distribution

Butternut is native to the eastern United States from Tennessee and western North Carolina north to southern Ontario and Quebec. Its distribution is scattered, never growing in pure stands, at the edges of forests or in the open. It is found in association with cherry, basswood, oak, walnut, ash, maple, elm and hemlock.

The Tree

Butternut trees reach heights of 100 ft (30 m), with a 3 ft (1 m) diameter.

 

The Wood

General

The narrow sapwood of butternut is white to light brown, while the heartwood is chestnut brown with red tinges. The growth rings are distinct, with a marked difference between the size of the earlywood and latewood pores. Butternut is similar to black walnut, but lighter in color and weight. It has no characteristic odor or taste.

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.36

0.97

5,400

2,420

220

8.2

390

760

Dry

0.38

1.18

8,100

5,110

460

8.2

490

1,170

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (98).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

8.1

5.1

2.1

Radial

3.6

2.7

1.1

Volumetric

12.5

8.5

3.5

References: 0% MC (98),
6% and 20% MC (90).

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Stock

Condition

4/4, 5/4, 6/4

8/4

10/4

12/4

16/4

Standard

T10-E4

T8-E3

aReferences (6, 86).

Working Properties: Butternut generally has a straight grain, works easily with tools, and takes a rich, lustrous finish.

Durability: Rated as slightly or nonresistant to heartwood decay.

Preservation: No information available at this time.

Uses: Lumber, furniture, boxes, crates, mill work, veneer.

Toxicity: No information available at this time.

 

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

6. Boone, R.S.; Kozlik, C.J.; Bois, P.J.; Wengert, E.M. 1988. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods-temperate and tropical. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL-GTR-57. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.

8. Brisbin, R.L.; Sonderman, D.L. 1973. Birch, an American wood. FS-221.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

9. Brown, H.P.; Panshin, A.J. 1940. Commercial timbers of the United States, their structure, identification, properties and uses. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.

29. Elias, T.S. 1980. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. New York: van Nostrand Reinhold Company.

40. Hausen, B.M. 1981. Woods injurious to human health. A manual. New York: Walter de Gruyter.

55. Little, Jr., E.L. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. U.S. Government Printing Office.

59. Markwardt, L.J.; Wilson, T.R.C. 1935. Strength and related properties of woods grown in the United States. Tech. Bull. 479. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. U.S. Government Printing Office.

64. Mitchell, J.; Rook, A. 1979. Botanical dermatology: plants and plant products injurious to the skin. Vancouver, BC: Greenglass Ltd.

68. Panshin, A.J.; de Zeeuw, C. 1980. Textbook of wood technology, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.

74. Record, S.J.; Hess R.W. 1943. Timbers of the new world. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

86. Simpson, W.T. 1991. Dry kiln operator's manual. Ag. Handb. 188. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.

90. Summitt, R.; Sliker, A. 1980. CRC handbook of materials science. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc. Vol. 4.

98. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1987. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Agric. Handb. 72. (Rev.) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 466 p.

105. Woods, B.; Calnan, C.D. 1976. Toxic woods. British Journal of Dermatology. 95(13): 1-97.