Conocarpus erectus

 

 

click here for the page in Engilsh units of measure

this page uses metric units of measure

 

Family: Combretaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

click to print or download the file in .pdf format

 

Buttonwood

 

 

 

 

The genus Conocarpus is composed of 2 species native to: North America [1] and the shores of tropical America and Africa [1]. The word conocarpus means "cone fruit", in reference to the cone like rounded fruits.

Other Common Names: Asokolo, Asopolo, Botoncahui, Botoncillo, Botonillo, Buttonbush, Button Mangrove, Button-tree, Chene Guadeloupe, Conocarpe Droit, Estachahuite, Flordia Button, Florida Buttonwood, Geli, Gra Mangrove, Grey Mangrove, Grignon, Grijze Mangle, Grijze Mangrove, Iztac-cuahuitl, Jele, Kaba, K an-chik-inche, Kanche, K ank-ank-che, K ank-che, Madre de Sal, Mangel, Mangel Blancu, Mangle, Mangle Blanco, Mangle Boton, Mangle Botoncillo, Mangle Cenizo, Mangle Garbancillo, Mangle Gris, Mangle Jeli, Mangle Lloroso, Mangle Marequita, Mangle Negro, Mangle Pinuelo, Mangle Prieto, Mangle Roche, Mangle Torcido, Mangle Zaragoza, Manglier, Manglier Gris, Mangrovia Grigia, Mangue, Mangue Branco, Mangue de Botao, Maraquito, N Ja, Paletuvier, Paletuvier Gris, Pash-ch uhnul, Pataban, Saragosa, Silver Buttonwood, Taabche, Tabche, Witte Mangel, Witte Mangro, Wortelboom, X-kanche, Xtabche, Yana, Zaragosa, Zaragoza Mangrove

Distribution

Native to the silt shores of coasts and islands of Florida, including the Florida keys. Also widely distributed on coasts of tropical America from Bermuda and Bahamas through West Indies including Puerto Rico and Virgin Islands. From Mexico south on the Atlantic coast to Brazil and on the Pacific coast to Ecuador including the Galapagos Islands and Peru. On coasts of west Africa and in Melanesia and Polynesia.

The Tree

Buttonwood occurs in tidal lagoons and bays of brackish water. It forms dense thickets of shrubby growth, but becomes tree like when growing alone. Flowers and fruits are produced year round. The tree reaches heights of 60 feet and 3 feet in diameter. The bark is thick and has broad plates of thin scales which are gray to brown. The bark is rich in tannins.

The Wood

General

The heartwood of Buttonwood is olive brown, with a reddish tinge, while the sapwood is lighter. It is moderately heavy, hard and strong. It has a high luster, medium texture, with a straight to mottled grain.

 

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

GPa

MOR

MPa

Parallel

MPa

Perpendicular

MPa

WMLa

kJ/m3

Hardness

N

Shear

MPa

Green

.69

8.2

51.0

28.3

7.9

42.7

4940

8.4

Dry

.85

10.9

70.3

54.1

11.2

40.7

--

--

aWML = Work to maximum load.

bReference (98).

cReference (59).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

8.5

--

--

Radial

5.4

--

--

Volumetric

14.6

--

--

aBirch shrinks considerably during drying. References: 0% MC (98),
6% and 20% MC (90).

Kiln Drying Schedules No information available at this time.

Working Properties: Buttonwood is not easy to work, but finishes smoothly.

Durability: Good.

Preservation: No information available at this time.

Uses: Durable construction, fuel, charcoal.

Toxicity: No information available at this time.

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

1. Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois & E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. USDA Forest Service, FPL General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57.

2. Elias, T.S. 1980. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 948 pp.

3. Little, Jr., E.L.1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 541, USGPO, Washington, DC.

4. Markwardt, L.J. and T.R.C. Wilson. 1935. Strength and related properties of woods grown in the United States. USDA Forest Service, Tech. Bull. No. 479. USGPO, Washington, DC.

5. Panshin, A.J. and C. de Zeeuw. 1980. Textbook of Wood Technology, 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 722 pp.

6. Record, S.J. and R.W. Hess. 1943. Timbers of the new world. Yale University Press, New Haven, 640 pp.

7. Simpson, W.T. 1991. Dry kiln operator's manual. USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook 188.

8. Summitt, R. and A. Sliker. 1980. CRC handbook of materials science. Volume 4, wood. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL. 459 pp.

Harry A. Alden, 1994

. 95(13): 1-97.