Celtis spp.

 

this page uses English units of measure

click here to view the file in metric units

 

Family: Ulmaceae

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

click to print or download the file in .pdf format

 

Hackberry

 

 

 

The genus Celtis is composed of about 75 species native to: the United States [7], Mexico and Central America [9] and the northern temperate and tropical zones and south Africa. The name celtis is the classical Latin name for a species of lotus.

Celtis laevigata- Almez Americano, American Celtis, Bagolaro Americano, Bois, Inconnu, Connu, Lowland Hackberry, Micocoulier a Sucre, Palo Blanco, Sockernasslatrad, Southern Hackberry, Sugarberry, Sugar Hackberry, Suikernetelboom, Texas Sugarberry,

Celtis lindheimeri-Lindheimer Hackberry, Palo Blanco

Celtis occidentalis-Almez Occidental, American Hackberry, Bagolaro Occidentale,Bar-alm, Bastard Elm, Beaverwood, Bigleaf Hackberry, Common Hackberry, False Elm, Hackberry, Hacktree, Hoop Ash, Huck, Micocoulier Occidental, Nettletree, Northern Hackberry, Oneberry, Sugarberry, Western Hackberry, Westerse Netelboom, Zwepenboom

Celtis reticulata-Netleaf Hackberry, Palo Blanco, Sugarberry, Thick Leaved Hackberry, Western Hackberry

Celtis tenuifolia-Dwarf Hackberry, Georgia Hackberry, Upland Hackberry

 

Distribution

The United States.

The Tree

Hackberry trees can reach heights of 130 feet, with a diameter of 4 feet.

The Wood

General

The sapwood of hackberry is pale yellow to grayish or greenish yellow, while the heartwood is a yellowish gray brown to light brown. The wood is straight grained, moderately hard, strong in bending, but weak in compression. It also has high shock resistance, but lacks stiffness, with excellent glueing properties.

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

x103 lbf/in2

Parallel

x103 lbf/in2

Perpendicular

x103 lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

x103 lbf/in2

Green

.49

.95

6.5

2.65

.4

14.5

700

1.07

Dry

.56

1.19

11.0

5.44

.89

12.8

880

1.59

aWML = Work to maximum load.

bReference (98).

cReference (59).

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

8.9

7.1

3.0

Radial

4.8

3.8

1.6

Volumetric

13.8

13.5

5.6

aBirch shrinks considerably during drying. References: 0% MC (98),
6% and 20% MC (90).

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Stock

Condition

4/4, 5/4, 6/4

8/4

10/4

12/4

16/4

Standard

T8-C4

T6-C3

T6-C3

T5-C3

T3-B1

aReferences (6, 86).

Working Properties: Hackberry wood planes and turns well. It is intermediate in ability to hold nails and screws. It resists splitting from screws better than from nails.

Durability: No information available at this time.

Preservation: No information available at this time.

Uses: Furniture, millwork, sporting and athletic goods, boxes and crates, veneer and plywood.

Toxicity: No information available at this time.

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

1. Boone, R.S., C.J. Kozlik, P.J. Bois & E.M. Wengert. 1988. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. USDA Forest Service, FPL General Technical Report FPL-GTR-57.

2. Elias, T.S. 1980. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York, 948 pp.

3. Hausen, B. M. 1981. Wood Injurious to Human Health: A Manual. Walter deGruyter & Co., Berlin, Germany; New York, NY.

4. Little, Jr., E.L. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). USDA Forest Service, Ag. Handbook No. 541, USGPO, Washington, DC.

5. Markwardt, L.J. and T.R.C. Wilson. 1935. Strength and related properties of woods grown in the United States. USDA Forest Service, Tech. Bull. No. 479. USGPO, Washington, DC.

6. Mitchell, J.; Rook, A. 1979. Botanical Dermatology: Plants and Plant Products Injurious to the Skin. Greenglass Ltd., 691 W. 28th Ave., Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V5H 2H4.

7. Panshin, A.J. and C. de Zeeuw. 1980. Textbook of Wood Technology, 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 722 pp.

8. Record, S.J. and R.W. Hess. 1943. Timbers of the new world. Yale University Press, New Haven, 640 pp.

9. Simpson, W.T. 1991. Dry kiln operator's manual. USDA Forest Service, FPL Ag. Handbook 188.

10. Smalley, G.W. 1973. Hackberry, and American wood. USDA Forest Service, FS-238.

11. Summitt, R. and A. Sliker. 1980. CRC handbook of materials science. Volume 4, wood. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, FL. 459 pp.

12. USDA Forest Service, FPL. 1974. Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material. Ag. Handbook 72.

13. Woods, B.; Calnan, C. D. 1976. Toxic Woods. British Journal of Dermatology; 95(13):1-97 Published by Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, England OX2 OEL.

Harry A. Alden, 1995

h Journal of Dermatology. 95(13): 1-97.