Acer negundo L.
Family: Aceraceae
Boxelder

Boxelder is a member of the Maple Family. The word acer is the classical Latin name of maple. The word negundo is from the Malayan common name of Vitex negundo L., negundo chastetree, later applied to this species.

Common names: Acecincle, acero Americano, acero negundo, acezintle, arce, arce fresno, arce negundo, ashleaf maple, ash-leaved maple, ash maple, asklonn, aune-buis, black ash, boxelder maple, California boxelder, Californian boxelder, californische esdoorn, cutleafed maple, erable a feuilles de frene, erable aux feuilles de frene, erable negundo, eschenblattriger ahorn, inland boxelder, manitoba maple, maple ash, negundo, negundo maple, palo de venagre, plaine a guiger, raxoch, red river maple, soft maple, stinking ash, sugar ash, threeleafed maple, veder-esdoorn, western boxelder.

Distribution: Lower elevations in North America, extending through Mexico into Guatemala, excluding Pacific Coast states and south central Canada.

The Tree: Boxelder is a maple which can reach a height of 70 ft (21 m) and a diameter of 3 ft (1 m). The trunk can be short and poorly formed, dividing into several main branches. Boxelder is fast growing, short lived and easily transplanted. The tree is prone to injury from wind, heart rot and insects. It has green twigs and compound leaves (ash-like), separating it from other maples. It grows best in lowland areas along rivers and grows with cottonwood, willow, maple, sycamore and tupelo.

The Wood: The heartwood is yellowish brown, while the sapwood is greenish yellow to creamy white. Red streaks are composed of a pigment from a fungus (Fusarium negundi). The wood is light, soft, porous, close-grained and weak. It is susceptible to heart rot. It can contain a curly figure.

Mechanical Properties (2-inch standard)

 

 

 

 

Compression

 

 

 

 

Specific

gravity

MOE

x106 lbf/in2

MOR

lbf/in2

Parallel

lbf/in2

Perpendicular

lbf/in2

WMLa

in-lbf/in3

Hardness

lbf

Shear

lbf/in2

Green

0.416

0.87

5,220

2,370

340

.90

540

940

Dry

0.457

n/a

n/a

4,950

780

n/a

720

1,360

aWML = Work to maximum load.

Reference (56).

 

 

Drying and Shrinkage

Type of shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage
(green to final moisture content)

0% MC

6% MC

20% MC

Tangential

7.4

n/a

n/a

Radial

3.9

n/a

n/a

Volumetric

14.8

n/a

9.4

References: (90).

 

Kiln Drying Schedulesa

 

Conventional temperature/moisture content-controlled schedulesa


Condition

4/4, 5/4
stock

6/4 stock

8/4
stock

10/4
stock

12/4
stock

British schedule
4/4 stock

Standard

T8-D4

T6-C3

T5-C2

n/a

n/a

L

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

aReference (6, 86).

Working Properties: Boxelder is workable with both hand tools and machine tools.

Durability: Boxelder is nonresistant to heartwood decay, being susceptible to heart rot and insects.

Preservation: No information available at this time.

Uses: Boxelder is currently used for inexpensive furniture, wooden ware, boxes, crates, wood pulp, charcoal, fuel and cooperage.

Toxicity: Suspected to cause allergic bronchial asthma and rhinitis (Acer spp.) (40).

Additional Reading and References Cited (in parentheses)

6. Boone, R.S.; Kozlik, C.J.; Bois, P.J.; Wengert, E.M. 1988. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods_temperate and tropical. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL_GTR_57. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.
29. Elias, T.S. 1980. The complete trees of North America, field guide and natural history. New York: van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
40. Hausen, B.M. 1981. Woods injurious to human health. A manual. New York: Walter de Gruyter.
55. Little, Jr., E.L. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. U.S. Government Printing Office.
68. Panshin, A.J.; de Zeeuw, C. 1980. Textbook of wood technology, 4th ed. New York: McGraw—Hill Book Co..
74. Record, S.J.; Hess R.W. 1943. Timbers of the new world. New Haven, CT: Yale
University Press.
86. Simpson, W.T. 1991. Dry kiln operator's manual. Ag. Handb. 188. Madison, WI: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory.
90. Summitt, R.; Sliker, A. 1980. CRC handbook of materials science. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Inc. Vol. 4.