Other Common Names: Pino (generally in Latin America), Ocote (Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua).
Distribution: Upper mountain slopes and mountain ridge tops from northwestern Mexico southward to central Nicaragua; most extensively in Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
The Tree: Tree size varies considerably over its range; heights up to 120 ft; diameters 16 to 32 in., occasionally 50 in. Boles are cylindrical, straight, and clear to 50 ft and more.
General Characteristics: Heartwood light reddish brown; distinct from the pale yellowish-brown sapwood. Luster medium; grain straight; texture is somewhat fine and uniform; odor resinous, taste not distinctive; growth rings distinct.
Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.55; air-dry density 41 pcf.
Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
Green (1) 7,970 1,740 3,690
12% 14,870 2,250 7,680
Janka side hardness 580 lb for green material and 910 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 120 in.-lb. (5/8-in specimen).
Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons at a fast to moderate rate with a minimum of seasoning defects. Kiln schedule T1 0-D4S is suggested for 4/4 stock and T8-D3S for 8/4. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 4.6%; tangential 7.5%; volumetric 12.3%.
Working Properties: The wood is easy to work with hand and machine tools and is comparable with the southern yellow pines.
Durability: The heartwood is classified as very durable in resistance to attack by white-rot fungus and moderately durable when exposed to a brown rot. The wood does not weather well without the protection of paint or other coatings.
Preservation: Sapwood is permeable; heartwood resistant.
Uses: General purpose construction timber (light and heavy), flooring, box and crate lumber, poles and crossties (treated), and other uses similar to that of the southern yellow pines.
1. Wangaard, F. F. and A. F. Muschler. 1952. Properties and uses of tropical woods, III. Tropical Woods 981-190.
From: Chudnoff, Martin. 1984. Tropical Timbers of the World. USDA Forest Service. Ag. Handbook No. 607.