and Hyeronima laxiflora
Other Common Names: Curtidor (Honduras), Nancito (Nicaragua), Pantano (Panama), Carne asada, Trompillo (Venezuela), Cargamanto, Casaco (Colombia), Suradanni (Surinam), Sangue-de-boi, Urucurana (Brazil).
Distribution: Depending on the species, ranges from southern Mexico to southern Brazil including the Guianas, Peru, and Colombia, also throughout the West Indies. Varies from abundant in seasonal marshes to relic occurrences in old forests on heavy soils.
The Tree: Large straight trees with spreading rounded buttresses; reaching heights of 130 ft; with trunk diameters of 3 ft or more, but more commonly with diameters of 20 to 24 in. Stems are often clear to 70 ft.
General Characteristics: Heartwood is a light reddish brown, to chocolate brown, to dark red; sapwood is pinkish white and 1 to 2 in. wide. Luster is low; texture moderately coarse; grain is interlocked; without distinctive odor or taste; tangential surfaces have parabolic markings due to variations in color at the margins of seasonal growth increments.
Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.60 to 0.67; air- dry density 46 to 53 pcf.
Mechanical Properties: (First set of data based on 2-in. standard; second on the 2-cm standard.)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
Green (75) 10,680 1,880 4,960
12% 18,200 2,270 9,620
Green (30) 11,500 1,520 4,900
15% 16,500 NA 8,450
Janka side hardness 1,220 lb for green material and 1,700 lb at 12% moisture content Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 187 in.-lb. (5/8-in. specimen).
Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-seasons rapidly with only a moderate amount of warp and surface checking developing. No data on kiln drying schedules available. Shrinkage from green to ovendry: radial 5.4%; tangential 11.7%; volumetric 17.0%.
Working Properties: The wood is reported to have good working properties in all operations except planing which is rated poor due to the characteristic roey grain.
Durability: The wood is rated moderately durable to very durable in ground contact based on laboratory pure culture evaluations as well as experience in railroad tracks. Resistant to moderately resistant to subterranean and dry-wood termites. Resistance to marine borers reported high for H. laxiflora.
Preservation: Both heartwood and sapwood are reported to treat moderately well using both open-tank and pressure-vacuum systems; test specimens had large end- grain exposure.
Uses: Heavy construction, railway crossties, marine work, furniture, cabinet work, decorative veneers, flooring, turnery, and joinery.
Additional Reading: (24), (30), (46), (75)
24. Food and Agriculture Organization. 1970. Estudio de preinversion para el desarrollo forestal de la Guyana Venezolana. lnforme final. Tomo III. Las madera del area del proyecto. FAO Report FAO/SF: 82 VEN 5. Rome.
30. Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas. 1956. Tabelas de resultados obtidos para madeiras nacionais. Bol. Inst. Pesqu. tec. Sao Paulo No. 31.
46. Longwood, F. R. 1962. Present and potential commercial timbers of the Caribbean. Agriculture Handbook No. 207. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
75. Wangaard, F. F., W. L. Stern, and S. L. Goodrich. 1955. Properties and uses tropical woods, V. Tropical Woods No. 103:1-139.
From: Chudnoff, Martin. 1984. Tropical Timbers of the World. USDA