USDA Forest Service
Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53705-2398
Wood Technical Fact Sheet
Other Common Names: Perefuetano (Colombia), Tostado (Venezuela), Aiomoradan, Burada (Guyana), Foengoe, Vonkhout (Surinam), Parinari, Pajura (Brazil), Uchpa-umari (Peru).
Distribution: The Guianas and the lower Amazon region of Brazil, but also in other areas of northern South America.
The Tree: May attain a height of 130 ft and a diameter of 48 in., usually up to 75 ft in height with diameters to 30 in. Boles may be up to 60 to 80 ft in length; commonly buttressed for a height of about 15 ft.
General Characteristics: Heartwood gray brown, yellow brown, or yellowish pink brown when freshly cut often a deep orange brown. Sapwood somewhat lighter colored and not clearly defined. Grain generally straight, sometimes interlocked; scattered pores coarse, otherwise texture is fine; luster mostly low; without distinctive odor or taste. Silica content up to about 2.0% is reported.
Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varying with species 0.64 to 0.72; air-dry density 50 to 55 pcf.
Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard; third set on the 1-in. standard.)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
Green (73) 12,750 2,120 5,800
12% 20,120 2,610 10,260
Green (73) 14,760 2,660 6,780
12% 21,740 2,930 11,960
12% (24) 19,600 2,480 9,850
Janka side hardness 1,270 lb for green wood and 1,830 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness average for green and dry material is 157 in.-lb. (5/8-in. specimen).
Drying and Shrinkage: The wood air-dries rapidly with only slight checking; warp is moderate. Kiln schedule T2-C2 for 4/4 stock is suggested, but only after prior air drying. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 5.9%; tangential 10.0%; volumetric 14.6.
Working Properties: Because of high silica content and high density the woods are difficult to machine; cutters are dulled rapidly. However, smooth surfaces are obtained in all operations with proper maintenance of tools.
Durability: Laboratory pure culture evaluations generally show moderate durability in resistance to white-rot and brown-rot fungi. Field exposure tests, however, indicate high susceptibility to decay. Resistant to attack by marine borers.
Preservation: Reported to be treatable using a pressure-vacuum system, with good penetration and absorption of preservatives.
Uses: Marine construction; especially when continuously submerged to avoid decay fungi, ship keels, railroad crossties (treated).
Additional Reading: (24), (72), (73)