Artocarpus spp.
Family: Moraceae
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Other Common Names: Ainee, Lakuch (India), Antipolo, Anubing (Philippines), Beruni, Terap (Sabah), Selangking (Sarawak), Ma-hat (Thailand).


Distribution: The genus is widely distributed in Indo-Malaya.  The bread- and jackfruits are cultivated throughout the tropics.


The Tree: Trees reach a height of 100 ft, with trunk diameters commonly 2 to 4 ft; boles are straight and cylindrical.


The Wood:

General Characteristics: Heartwood yellow to brown, sometimes with an olive green tinge, some species turning dark brown upon exposure; sapwood sharply defined in some species; texture moderately coarse to coarse; grain interlocked; moderately lustrous without distinctive odor or taste.  Vitreous silica content of up to 6.4% is reported.


Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.41 to 0.75; air-dry density 32 to 57 pcf.


Mechanical Properties: (2-in.  standard)


Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing strength

            (%)                  (Psi)                            (1,000 psi)                   (Psi)

Green (34)                     8,300                            980                           4,400

12%                             12,300                         1,260                           6,550


13% (47)                     13,300                         1,706                           8,260


Janka side hardness 1,210 lb for green material and 1,250 lb at 12% moisture content., Forest Products Laboratory toughness 268 in.-lb for green material and 209 in.-lb for dry (5/8-in.  specimen).


Drying and Shrinkage: Varies with species, generally reported to season rather slow with little to moderate warp and checking.  No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.9%; tangential 5.5%.


Working Properties: Some species reported to be difficult to saw and machine, others are easy to work and dress smoothly.


Durability: There is considerable variation in heartwood durability within and between species ranging from perishable in ground contact to highly durable.


Preservation: Heartwood absorption is low in most species, sapwood absorbs preservatives readily.


Uses: Flooring, joinery, furniture and cabinetwork, musical instruments, turnery, veneer and plywood, heavy construction (under cover).


Additional Reading: (9), (12), (34), (47)


9. Burgess, P. F. 1966.  Timbers of Sabah.  Sabah For.  Rec.  No.  6.

12.  Douay, J. 1956.  Gmelina arborea (Roxb.).  Monographie Bois For.  Trop.  48:25 38.

34.  Lauricio, F. M., and S. B. Bellosillo.  1966.  The mechanical and related properties of Philippine        woods.  The Lumberman 12(5):66 +A-H.

47.  Pearson, R. S., and H. P. Brown.  1932.  Commercial timbers of India.  Gov.  of India Central Publ.  Br., Calcutta.


From: Chudnoff, Martin. 1984. Tropical Timbers of the World. USDA Forest Service. Ag. Handbook No. 607.