Other Common Names: Ainee, Lakuch (India), Antipolo, Anubing (Philippines), Beruni, Terap (Sabah), Selangking (Sarawak), Ma-hat (Thailand).
Distribution: The genus is widely distributed in Indo-Malaya. The bread- and jackfruits are cultivated throughout the tropics.
The Tree: Trees reach a height of 100 ft, with trunk diameters commonly 2 to 4 ft; boles are straight and cylindrical.
General Characteristics: Heartwood yellow to brown, sometimes with an olive green tinge, some species turning dark brown upon exposure; sapwood sharply defined in some species; texture moderately coarse to coarse; grain interlocked; moderately lustrous without distinctive odor or taste. Vitreous silica content of up to 6.4% is reported.
Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species from 0.41 to 0.75; air-dry density 32 to 57 pcf.
Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
Green (34) 8,300 980 4,400
12% 12,300 1,260 6,550
13% (47) 13,300 1,706 8,260
Janka side hardness 1,210 lb for green material and 1,250 lb at 12% moisture content., Forest Products Laboratory toughness 268 in.-lb for green material and 209 in.-lb for dry (5/8-in. specimen).
Drying and Shrinkage: Varies with species, generally reported to season rather slow with little to moderate warp and checking. No data available on kiln schedules. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.9%; tangential 5.5%.
Working Properties: Some species reported to be difficult to saw and machine, others are easy to work and dress smoothly.
Durability: There is considerable variation in heartwood durability within and between species ranging from perishable in ground contact to highly durable.
Preservation: Heartwood absorption is low in most species, sapwood absorbs preservatives readily.
Uses: Flooring, joinery, furniture and cabinetwork, musical instruments, turnery, veneer and plywood, heavy construction (under cover).
Additional Reading: (9), (12), (34), (47)
9. Burgess, P. F. 1966. Timbers of Sabah. Sabah For. Rec. No. 6.
12. Douay, J. 1956. Gmelina arborea (Roxb.). Monographie Bois For. Trop. 48:25 38.
34. Lauricio, F. M., and S. B. Bellosillo. 1966. The mechanical and related properties of Philippine woods. The Lumberman 12(5):66 +A-H.
47. Pearson, R. S., and H. P. Brown. 1932. Commercial timbers of India. Gov. of India Central Publ. Br., Calcutta.
From: Chudnoff, Martin. 1984. Tropical Timbers of the World. USDA Forest Service. Ag. Handbook No. 607.