|Anthocephalus chinensis syn. A. cadamba|
Other Common Names: Kalempayan (Malaya), Laran (Sabah), Kaatoan Bangkal (Philippines), Kelempajan (Indonesia), Mau-lettan-she (Burma), Kadam (India).
Distribution: Widely distributed from India to the Malayan Peninsula, Indonesia, Philippines, New Guinea, and Australia. Grows best on deep, moist, alluvial sites, often in secondary forests along riverbanks. A favored plantation species inside and outside its native region.
The Tree: May reach a height of 150 ft with trunk diameters of 40 in.; but more commonly 50 to 100 ft in height with diameters of 15 in. to 24 in.; sometimes with small buttresses; broad crown.
General Characteristics: Sapwood white with a light yellow tinge becoming creamy yellow on exposure; not differentiated from the heartwood. Texture fine to medium; grain straight; luster low; without characteristic odor or taste.
Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.31 to 0.40; air- dry density 23 to 30 pcf.
Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard, third set on the 2-cm standard.)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
Green (54) 6,870 1,170 3,370
12% 10,980 1,270 5,750
Green (34) 5,000 735 2,340
Green (66) 7,850 1,100 4,020
12% 11,150 1,260 6,440
Janka side hardness 470 lb green and 600 lb at 12% moisture content. Forest Products Laboratory toughness 157 in.-lb for green material (5/8-in specimen).
Drying and Shrinkage: The timber air dries rapidly with little or no degrade. Kiln schedule T10-D4S is suggested for 4/4 stock and T8-D3S for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 2.5%; tangential 5.9%. Movement in service is rated as small.
Working Properties: The wood is easy to work with hand and machine tools, cuts cleanly, gives a very good surface. Easy to nail.
Durability: The wood is rated as nondurable.
Preservation: Very easy to treat using either open tank or pressure-vacuum systems.
Uses: Plywood, light construction, pulp and paper, boxes and crates, furniture components, millwork.
Additional Reading: (9), (25), (34), (54), (65)
9. Burgess, P. F. 1966. Timbers of Sabah. Sabah For. Rec. No. 6.
25. Grijpma, P. 1967. Anthocephalus cadamba, a versatile, fast-growing industrial tree species for the tropics. Turrialba 17(3):321-328.
34. Lauricio, F. M., and S. B. Bellosillo. 1966. The mechanical and related properties of Philippine woods. The Lumberman 12(5):66 +A-H.
54. Sekhar, A. C., and D. N. Bhatia. 1957. Physical and mechanical properties of woods tested at the Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun. Indian Forest Records (Timber Mechanics) 1 (9):1 55-157.
65. United Kingdom: Dep. Sci. Ind. Res. 1957. A handbook of softwoods. H. M. Stationery Office. London.
From: Chudnoff, Martin. 1984. Tropical Timbers of the World. USDA Forest Service. Ag. Handbook No. 607.