Bischofia javanica
Family: Euphorbiaceae
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Other Common Names: Gintungan, Paniala (India), Aukkyu, Ye-Padauk (Burma), Nhoi (Vietnam), Term (Thailand), Tuai (Philippines), Koka (Fiji).


Distribution: Widely distributed Indo-Malayan species extending into the Philippines Korea, and Polynesia. Common along streams at low and medium altitudes.


The Tree: May reach a height of 100 ft but bole seldom attaining a length of 25 ft; trunk diameters of 36 in.  and more are common, reaching 60 in.; without buttresses.


The Wood:

General Characteristics: Heartwood purple red brown, darkening to a much deeper shade on exposure; sapwood light cream colored to reddish brown, rather distinct from the heartwood.  Texture moderately fine to rather coarse; grain interlocked; slightly lustrous; without distinctive odor or taste.


Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) ranges from 0.45 to 0.71, averaging about 0.56; air-dry density 34 to 54 pcf.


Mechanical Properties: (2-in.  standard)


Moisture content   Bending strength   Modulus of elasticity   Maximum crushing strength

            (%)                  (Psi)                            (1,000 psi)                   (Psi)

Green (34)                   6,920                           860                              3,610

12%                             16,000             1,630                           7,130


Green (11)                   6,970                           1,260                           3,370

10%                             14,190             1,690                           8,560


Janka side hardness 915 lb for green material and 1,370 lb for dry.  Forest Products Laboratory toughness 244 in.-lb green and 113 in.-lb at 12% moisture content (5/8-in. specimen).


Drying and Shrinkage: Generally reported as very difficult to season; severe warp and checking, tending to collapse and honeycomb.  Material from Malaya reported to season rapidly with little degrade.  No data on kiln schedules available.  Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.4%; tangential 9.8%.


Working Properties: Machining characteristics are rated as good, works to a smooth finish.


Durability: Heartwood moderately durable; but ratings vary from perishable in the Philippines to durable in the Fiji islands.


Preservation: Reports from Malaya indicate heartwood is non-treatable but absorption of 4 to 5 pcf were obtained in tests at Dehra Dun, India.


Uses: General construction (protected from the weather), flooring, furniture components.  Good quality Kraft and soda pulps were prepared from this wood.


Additional Reading:: (9), (11), (34), (47)

9. Burgess, P. F. 1966.  Timbers of Sabah.  Sabah For.  Rec.  No.  6.

11.  Desch, H. E. 1941-54.  Manual of Malayan timbers.  Malayan Forest Records No. 15.2 vol.

34.  Lauricio, F. M., and S. B. Bellosillo.  1966.  The mechanical and related properties of Philippine   woods.  The Lumberman 12(5):66 +A-H.

47.  Pearson, R. S., and H. P. Brown.  1932.  Commercial timbers of India.  Gov.  of India Central Publ.  Br., Calcutta.



From: Chudnoff, Martin. 1984. Tropical Timbers of the World. USDA Forest Service. Ag. Handbook No. 607.