USDA Forest Service
Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53705-2398
Wood Technical Fact Sheet
Other Common Names: Punak (Indonesia), Entuyut (Sarawak and Brunei), Tuyot (Sabah).
Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra; found in coastal swamp forests.
The Tree: Reaches a height of 120 ft and trunk diameters 2 to 3 ft; boles often fluted; clear to 40 to 50 ft; without buttresses.
General Characteristics: Heartwood straw colored or light brown, sometimes tinged with pink; sapwood lighter in color, not clearly differentiated. Texture moderately coarse; grain generally straight; luster low; timber has a waxy feel; has an unpleasant odor when fresh, but this does not persist.
Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.61; air-dry density 45 pcf.
Mechanical Properties: (2-in. standard)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
Green (37) 9,690 1,860 4,570
Janka side hardness 910 lb.
Drying and Shrinkage: The timber dries rapidly but is prone to warping and end checking. Kiln schedule T3-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-C1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 6.1%; tangential 10.7%; volumetric 17.3%.
Working Properties: The timber saws and machines fairly well; finish after planing tends to be fibrous and requires considerable sanding; tends to split in nailing.
Durability: Rated as moderately durable in Malaysia but generally considered as unsuitable for use in ground contact; prone to sap stain.
Preservation: Heartwood reported to absorb about 4 pcf of preservative oils using the open-tank system and 8 pcf using a pressure treatment.
Uses: General construction, joinery, flooring, furniture components.
Additional Reading: (9), (11), (17), (37)