USDA Forest Service
Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53705-2398
Wood Technical Fact Sheet
Other Common Names: Amugis (Philippines).
Distribution: Philippines, Celebes, and Borneo (including Sabah); a scattered tree in lowland forests.
The Tree: Reaches a height of 120 ft with trunk diameters usually 24 to 30 in.; buttressed to height of about 5 ft.
General Characteristics: Heartwood medium red brown to a dark red; sapwood white, pinkish, or grayish brown, clearly defined. Texture rather fine and even; grain interlocked, sometimes slightly wavy or curly; luster variable; without distinctive odor or taste.
Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.65 to 0.72; air- dry density 50 to 55 pcf.
Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
Green (72) 15,580 1,900 8,130
12% 22,420 2,250 11,210
Janka side hardness 1,705 lb for green material and 1,860 lb for dry.
Drying and Shrinkage: Dries with some degrade due to splitting and shake; warp is also a problem, particularly cup. Kiln schedule T13-C4S is suggested for 4/4 stock and T11-D3S for 8/4. Air drying prior to kiln drying of thick lumber is also suggested. Shrinkage green to 12% moisture content: radial 3.5%; tangential 6.5%. Movement in service is rated as small.
Working Properties: Works adequately with most tools, band resaw rather than a circular blade is recommended for ripping. Dresses to a smooth finish but torn grain is common on quartered faces. Requires firm support at exit faces in mortising and boring.
Durability: Heartwood is only moderately durable to nondurable and is not resistant to termite attack. Standing trees are liable to longhorn beetle damage.
Preservation: Heartwood is extremely resistant to preservation treatments; sapwood rated as moderately resistant.
Uses: Flooring, furniture components, turnery, general joinery.
Additional Reading: (9), (48), (72)