Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53705-2398
Wood Technical Fact Sheet
Other Common Names: Dalchini, Ohez, Gondhori (India), Karawe, Hmanthein (Burma), Kayu (Sabah), Kalingag (Philippines), Kusunoki (Japan).
Distribution: The various species are widely distributed in Southeast Asia, Southern China, Formosa, Japan, and southwards to Australia. Widely planted in tropical and subtropical parts of the world.
The Tree: Generally 60 to 100 ft in height with straight cylindrical boles 40 ft in length. Trunk diameters may range from 2 to 4 ft.
General Characteristics: Heartwood light yellowish-, olive-, reddish-, brownish gray to red, reddish brown, orange brown, or light brown, varying with species; not sharply demarcated from sapwood in some species. Sometimes figured with dark streaks; grain straight, interlocked, or wavy; texture medium coarse to fine; more less lustrous; often fragrant with odors of camphor, anise oil, or other scents, without distinctive taste.
Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) varies with species 0.35 to 0.50; air-dry density 26 to 39 pcf.
Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
12% (51) 10,700 NA 5,660
Amsler toughness 120 in.-lb for dry material (2-cm specimen).
Drying and Shrinkage: Generally reported to air season with little or no degrade, some species have a tendency to warp. A kiln schedule similar to T1 0-D2 has been suggested. Shrinkage green to ovendry; volumetric 7.4%. Reported to be moderately stable in use.
Working Properties: Easy to saw and works well with both hand and machine tools, finishes smoothly.
Durability: Variable with species; some reported to be durable in ground contact and largely immune to insect attack.
Preservation: No information available.
Uses: Cabinetwork, trunks, chests and caskets, furniture, wardrobes. Trees in this group are cultivated for cinnamon spice, natural camphor, and other aromatic oils.
Additional Reading: (29), (47), (51)