USDA Forest Service
Forest Products Laboratory
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Wood Technical Fact Sheet

 

 Casuarina spp.

Casuarina

Casuarinaceae The genus Casuarina contains about 70 species native to the Old World Tropics. The name casuarina comes from the appearance of the drooping branches looking like a cassowary bird (Casuarinus spp.). The main species planted in the United States is Casuarina equisetifolia. Casuarina collina Bois de fer, bois de fer de Bord River, bois de fer de riviere, filao de la Nouvelle Holande, tietang.

Casuarina cunninghamiana Australian beefwood, Australian pine, beefwood, bois de fer, bois de fer riviere, casuarina, casuarina , cavalinha, chowku, ironwood, Cunningham casuarina, pino australiano, pino de Australia, river oak, river she oak, river-oak casuarina, roble hembra.

Casuarina deplancheana Faux bois de fer.

Casuarina equisetifolia Ago, agoho, agoo, agoso, aial, aito, angin laut, aroho, aroo, arr, aru, Australian beefwood, Australian pine, balau, beach casuarina, beach she oak, beefwood, bois de fer, bois de filao, casuarina, casuarine, cau, cazuarina, cemara, chavuku, chouk, chow, chowku, cipres, duong, duong lieu, eru, filao, filao du senegal, filao pays, gago, gagu, goago, horsetail beefwood, horsetail casuarina, horsetail she oak, horsetail-tree, inya, ironwood, kabwi, karamutan, kayu aru, knotsboom, malabohok, manoui, mantaga, marabohok, mvindya, mvinje, mwinja, nach, nakure, namane, nanearr, naru, nas, neier, nerr, neuru, ngas, ngasu, niar, niaro, niel, nierr, nokonoko, nul, oak-tree, oru, phi lao, pin d'Australie, pinle-kabwe, pino, pino australiano, pino de Australia, pino-maritimo, polynesian ironwood, qaro, rarau, rhu laut, ru, sauce, serva, serve, she oak, shortleaf ironwood, son, sura, swamp oak, tinyu, tjamara, tjemara, tjemara taut, toa, weeping willow, weku, whistling pine, yar, yorsed.

Casuarina glauca Ailla, casuarina, filao multipliant, grey bull oak, grey bull-oak, longleaf casuarina, longleaf ironwood, marsh she oak, salt-marsh ironwood, she oak, swamp oak, swamp she oak.

Casuarina junghuhniana Caqueu, cemara, son, sonpradipat, tjemara gunung.

Casuarina lepidophloia Australian pine, belah, belar, casuarina, pino australiano, pino de Australia, scalybark casuarina.

Casuarina littoralis Black oak, black she oak, oak, she oak.

Casuarina montana Berg-casuarine.

Casuarina nobilis Agoho, empilor, jempilau, ru, ru ronang, sempilau, sempilau laut.

Casuarina nodiflora Agoho, agoho del monte, bois de fer, cau, caukuro, kucau, mountain agoho, ru, sampalag, tamarin, thaukuro, velau.

Casuarina obesa Swamp she oak.

Casuarina papuana She oak.

Casuarina poissoniana Bois de fer de montagne, petit bois de fer de montagne.

Casuarina spp. Abun darod, amun, beru, bois de fer de riviere, bois de fer jaune, caukalou, caukuru, Fijian beech, filaos, ironwood, jaauw, jauw, kayu embun, kayu ru, kitan, mara, oru, ouain, ouani, rhu rongang, she oak, tjamara, tjumara.

Casuarina stricta Casuarina, highland ironwood, pao ferro.

Casuarina sumatrana Ambon, antur mangan, casuarina, cemara, cemara gunung, cemara sumatera, ironwood, maribuhok, rhu, rhu bukit, rhu ronang, ru, ru gunong, ru ronan, ru ronang, ruronang, rurorang, sempilau, sempilau bukit, tjemara, tjemara gunung, tjemara sumatra.

 

Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Burma, Australia, Philippines, and islands of the Pacific. Widely cultivated throughout the tropics. C. equisetifolia is particularly favored along seashores.

The Tree: A rapidly growing tree that may reach a height of 120 to 150 ft with trunk diameters up to 24 in. Bole is often fluted, straight, and cylindrical.

General Wood Characteristics: Heartwood light red to reddish brown, becoming darker in older trees; sapwood buff colored, usually distinct from heartwood. Texture fine, grain straight to interlocked; luster is low; without distinctive odor or taste. Species with wide rays have an attractive figure when quartered.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weight

Weight

Moisture content

Specific gravity

kg/m3

lb/ft3

C. cambagei

12%

NA

1153

72a

C. cunninghamiana

12%

1.09b

769

48a

Ovendry

0.87b

NA

NA

C. equisetifolia

12%

0.88Æ0.95c

897 977

56Æ61c

12%

0.70Æ0.94d

1153

72f

12%

0.79Æ1.22e

1025

64f

12%

0.83h

995

62.1g

12%

0.96h

1201

75g

12%

0.82h

945

59g

12%

0.95h

NA

NA

12%

0.88h

NA

NA

C. fraseriana

12%

NA

673

42a

C. glauca

12%

NA

897

56a

C. inophloia

12%

NA

1057

66a

C. luehmanni

12%

NA

1193

74.5a

C. spp.

12%

NA

857 1070

53.5Æ66.8i

C. stricta

12%

NA

1001

62.5a

C. suberosa

12%

NA

921

57.5a

C. sumatrana

12%

NA

1139

71.1g

C. torulosa

12%

NA

1073

67a

aReference (2). bReference (29). cReference (24). dReference (15). eReference (27).

fReference (19). gReference (5). hReference (16). iReference (6).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mechanical Properties

Property

Green

Dry

C. cunninghamianaa

MOE

NA

NA

12.61 GPa

1.83 ¥ 106 lbf/in2

MOR

NA

NA

185 MPa

26.88 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

C| |

NA

NA

83.36 MPa

12.09 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

C^

NA

NA

13.65 MPa

1.98 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

Hardness

NA

NA

904.00 N

1993 lbf

Shear| |

NA

NA

12.96 MPa

1.88 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

C. cunninghamianab

MOE

NA

NA

11.51 GPa

1.67 ¥ 106 lbf/in2

MOR

NA

NA

99.28 MPa

14.4 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

C. equisetifoliac

MOE

NA

NA

15.10 GPa

2.19 ¥ 106 lbf/in2

MOR

NA

NA

101.00 MPa

14.65 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

C| |

NA

NA

65.50 MPa

9.5 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

C. equisetifoliad

MOE

NA

NA

11.24 GPa

1.63 ¥ 106 lbf/in2

C| |

NA

NA

32.06 MPa

4.65 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

Hardness

NA

NA

676.76 N

1492 lbf

Shear| |

NA

NA

11.31 MPa

1.64 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

C. equisetifoliae

MOE

13.03 GPa

1.89 ¥ 106 lbf/in2

22.82 GPa

3.31 ¥ 106 lbf/in2

MOR

99.28 MPa

14.4 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

172.37 MPa

25.0 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

C| |

45.57 MPa

6.61 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

75.84 MPa

11.0 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

C^

19.72 MPa

2.86 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

8.07 MPa

1.17 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

Hardness

1450.13 N

3197 lbf

1010.15 N

2227 lbf

Shear| |

18.34 MPa

2.66 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

NA

NA

C. equisetifoliae

MOE

16.34 GPa

2.37 ¥ 106 lbf/in2

17.72 GPa

2.57 ¥ 106 lbf/in2

MOR

115.83 MPa

16.8 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

162.03 MPa

23.5 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

C| |

NA

NA

44.61 MPa

6.47 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

C^

17.51 MPa

2.54 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

11.10 MPa

1.61 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

Hardness

1716.39 N

3748 lbf

1010.15 N

2227 lbf

Shear| |

10.69 MPa

1.55 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

NA

NA

C. equisetifoliae

MOE

13.79 GPa

2.0 ¥ 106 lbf/in2

NA

NA

MOR

94.46 MPa

13.7 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

NA

NA

C. glaucab

MOE

NA

NA

14.27 GPa

2.07 ¥ 106 lbf/in2

MOR

NA

NA

118.38 MPa

17.17 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

C. torulosa

MOE

NA

NA

14.41 GPa

2.09 ¥ 106 lbf/in2

MOR

NA

NA

118.45 MPa

17.18 ¥ 103 lbf/in2

aReference (29). bReference (2). cReference (24). dReference (5). eReference (16).

Janka side hardness 1,980 lb for green material and 3,200 lb for dry. Amsler toughness 182 in.-lb at 12% moisture content (2-cm specimen).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Drying and shrinkage

Percentage of shrinkage

(green to final moisture content)

Type of shrinkage

0%MC

6%MC

15%MC

C. cunninghamianaa

Tangential

13

NA

NA

Radial

5.5

NA

NA

Volumetric

15.1

NA

NA

C. equisetifoliab

Tangential

10.6

NA

3.9

Radial

4.7

NA

2.2

Volumetric

NA

NA

NA

C. spp.

Tangential

NA

NA

8.2

Radial

NA

NA

2.4

Volumetric

NA

NA

NA

aReference (29).

bReference (5).

 

Kiln drying schedulea

Condition

4/4, 5/4, 6/4

stock

8/4

stock

British Schedule

4/4, 5/4, 6/4 stock

Standard

T2-C2

NA

A

aReference (4).

The wood dries at a moderate rate but usually with considerable warp and checking.

Working Properties: Saws with difficulty and also difficult to work with hand and machine tools because of the high density, finishes smoothly.

Durability: Heartwood is generally reported as nondurable. In Puerto Rico the wood is rated as susceptible to dry-wood termites; but in the Philippines, it is rated as resistant.

Preservation: Sapwood is readily treated; heartwood absorption is irregular and only 5 pcf when treated by a full-cell schedule.

Uses: Construction under cover, tool handles, turnery, posts, poles and shingles (treated), charcoal, tanbark, tests in India indicate the wood is suitable for chemical and semi-chemical pulps. Noted as "the best firewood in the world"(20).

Toxicity: No information available at this time.

Additional Reading & References Cited (in parentheses):

1. Anon. Casuarina torulosa, rose she-oak. Wood (Brit.). 1956; 21(10):392-393.

2. Baker, R. T. The Hardwoods of Australia and their Economics. Sydney, Australia: Technological Museum, New South Wales; 1919.

3. Bode, D. D. Casuarina for pulp manufacturers. Pulp Manufacturer's Record. 1940; Jan.

4. Boone, R. S.; Kozlik, C. J.; Bois, P. J., and Wengert, E. M. Dry kiln schedules for commercial woods - temperate and tropical. Madison, WI: USDA Forest Service, FPL-GTR-57; 1988.

5. Burgess, P. F. Timbers of Sabah. Sabah For. Rec. No. 6; 1966.

6. CSIRO. Fiji timbers and their uses. Suva, Fiji: CSIRO, A summary of CSIRO investigations, No. 16.; 1967.

7. Curran, C. E.; Schwartz, S. L., and Bray, M. W. The pulping of cajeput, white mangrove, Australian pine and Cunningham pine by the sulfate process. Paper Trade Journal. 1934; 98(23):44-47.

8. de Cordemay, J. Contribution a l'etude de la morphalogie, de l'anatomie comparee, de la phylogenie et de la biogeographie des Casuarinacees. Rev. Gen. Bot. 1923; 35:71-91, 127-140, 186-195, 227-243, 292-303, 335-347, 399-413.

9. Desch, H. E. Malayan Forest Records No. 15, Manual of Malayan Timbers:Vol. I. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Federated Malay States Government; 1941.

10. Dunlap, V. C. Launching new crops. in: Wilson, C. M., ed. New crops for the new world.; 1945; 16 pp. 273-287.

11. Gerry, E. Casuarina Adana. Madison, WI, USA: USDA Forest Service, Information Leaflet, Foreign Woods; 1948.

12. Gifford, J. C. The reclamation of the Everglades with trees. New York, NY, USA: Books, Inc.; 1935.

13. Howard, A. L. A manual of the timbers of the world. 3rd Ed. London: MacMillan; 1948.

14. Hyam, R. and Pankhurst, R. Plant and their names. A concise dictionary. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 1995.

15. Kraemer, J. H. Native wood for construction purposes in the western Pacific region. Washington, DC, USA: Navy Dept., Bureau of Yards & Docks.; 1944.

16. Lauricio, F. M. and Bellosillo, S. B. The mechanical and related properties of Philippine hardwoods. The Lumberman. 1966; 12(5):66+A-H.

17. Limaye, V. D. The physical and mechanical properties of woods grown in India. Indian Forest Records. 1933; 18(10):59.

18. Linn, E. R. Florida forests are different. American Forests. 1948; 54(2):94.

19. Longwood, F. R. Puerto Rican woods. Their machining, seasoning and related characteristics. Washington DC: GPO, Ag Handbook no.205; 1961.

20. Mabberley, D. J. The plant-book, a portable dictionary of the higher plants. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1987.

21. Miquel, F. A. W. Casuarineae DC. Prodr. 1868; 16(2):332-334.

22. ---. Revisio critica Casuarinarum. 1848.

23. ---. Synopsis specierum Casuarinae. Flora. 1865; 48:17-24.

24. Pearson, R. S. and Brown, H. P. Commercial timbers of India. Calcutta: Gov. of India Central Publ. Br.; 1932.

25. Poisson, J. Recherches sur les Casuarina et en particular sur ceux de la Nouvelle-Caledonie nouv. Arch. Mus. Nat. Paris. 1876; 10:59-111.

26. Ragg, L. Casuarina equisetifolia. Tree Lover (London). 1941; 4(37):13-14.

27. Reyes, L. J. Philippine Woods. Manila, Philippines: Department of Agriculture and Commerce, Commonwealth of the Philippines; 1938.

28. Rhoads, A. S. The casuarinas or so-called Australian pines in Florida. Subtrop. Gard. 1940; 2(11):9, 14.

29. Sallenave, P. Proprietes Physiques et Mecaniques des Bois Tropicaux de L'Union Francaise. Nogent-Sur-Marine, France: Centre Technique Forestier Tropical; 1955.

30. Shukla, N. K.; Khanduri, A. K.; Krishan Lal, and Mohan Lal. Physical and mechanical properties of some exotic species. Indian Forester. 1990; 116(2):140-147.

31. Small, John Kunkel. Manual of the Southeastern Flora. New York: Small, John Kunkel; 1933.

32. Spurr, S. H. The pine that isn't a pine. American Forests. 1941; March:118-120.

33. Swain, E. H. F. The timbers and forest products of Queensland. Brisbane, Australia; 1928.

 

 

 

 

 

Abbreviations

4/4

nominal 1-inch (standard 25.4-mm) thickness

lbf

pound-force

5/4

nominal 1-1/4-inch (standard 32-mm) thickness

m

meter

6/4

nominal 1-1/2-inch (standard 38-mm) thickness

MC

moisture content

8/4

nominal 2-inch (standard 51-mm) thickness

MOE

modulus of elasticity

10/4

nominal 2-1/2-inch (standard 64-mm) thickness

MOR

modulus of rupture

12/4

nominal 3-inch (standard 76-mm) thickness

Mpa

megapascal (106 Pa)

16/4

nominal 4-inch (standard 102-mm) thickness

N

newton

C| |

compression parallel to grain, maximum crushing strength

NA

information not available

C^

compression perpendicular to grain, stress at proportional limit

Pa

pascal

Dry

12 percent moisture content

Shear| |

shear parallel to grain, maximum shearing strength

Gpa

gigapascal (109 Pa)

SG

specific gravity

Hardness

side hardness

WML

work to maximum load

kJ

kilojoule (103 J)

Original material by Martin Chudnoff, revised by Harry A. Alden, 1996.