Other Common Names: Ofram (Ghana), Frake (Ivory Coast), Afara (Nigeria), Akom (Cameroon), Limba (Zaire, Angola). "Korina" a trade name in the United States.
Distribution: Widely distributed from Sierra Leone to Angola and Zaire; occurs in rain and savanna forests. A favored plantation species in West Africa.
The Tree: Reaches a height of 150 ft; boles straight and clear to 90 ft; trunk diameters 4 to 8 ft above buttresses. Brittleheart present in some logs.
General Characteristics: Heartwood yellow brown, sometimes with nearly black markings producing an attractive figure; sapwood not distinct from heartwood. Texture moderately coarse; grain straight to irregular or interlocked; slightly lustrous; mild odor. Dark colored figured wood is marketed separately as Dark Afara or Dark Limba. Splinters may cause skin inflammation.
Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.45; air-dry density 34 pcf.
Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
12%(9) 12,100 1,530 5,490
12%(29) 13,200 1,430 6,900
Amsler toughness 127 in.-lb at 12% moisture content (2-cm specimen).
Drying and Shrinkage: Seasons rapidly with little or no checking and warp. Kiln schedule T10-D5S is suggested for 4/4 stock and T8-D4S for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.5%; tangential 6.2%; volumetric 10.8%. Movement in service is rated as small.
Working Properties: Saws easily, works well with hand and machine tools, good veneering properties, good gluing and nailing characteristics, takes a good finish.
Durability: Heartwood is nondurable, not resistant to termites, liable to severe ambrosia beetle and powder-post beetle attack.
Preservation: Heartwood extremely resistant to preservative treatments; sapwood moderately so.
Uses: Plywood, furniture, interior joinery, sliced for decorative veneers.
Additional Reading: (3), (9), (29)
3. Bolza, E., and W. G. Keating. 1972. African timbers-the properties, uses, and characteristics of 700 species. CSIRO. Div. of Build. Res., Melbourne, Australia.
9. Farmer, R. H. 1972. Handbook of hardwoods. H. M. Stationery Office. London.
29.France: Bois For. Trop. 1974. Limba-Frake (Terminalia superba). Bois For.Trop. 158:33-49.
From: Chudnoff, Martin. 1984. Tropical Timbers of the World. USDA Forest Service. Ag. Handbook No. 607.