USDA Forest Service
Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53705-2398
Wood Technology Transfer Fact Sheet
Other Common Names: Agnegre, Anegre (Ivory Coast), Landosan (Nigeria), Mukali, Kali (Angola), Osan, Mutoke (Uganda), Mukangu, Muna (Kenya).
Distribution: The genus is widespread in tropical Africa, particularly common in parts of East Africa.
The Tree: May reach a height of 180 ft with a clear cylindrical bole to 80 ft; trunk diameters above tall symmetrical buttresses 3 to 4 ft.
General Characteristics: Heartwood yellowish white, pale brown, or pinkish brown, darkening slightly after exposure; sapwood not well demarcated. Texture medium to coarse; grain usually straight, sometimes wavy; lustrous; faint cedarlike odor.
Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.40 to 0.48; air- dry density 30 to 36 pcf.
Mechanical Properties: (First two sets of data based on the 2-in. standard, the third set on the 2-cm standard.)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
Green (49) 7,930 1,100 4,250
12% 7,980 1,170 5,260
12% (64) 13,000 NA 7,000
12% (47) 15,000 1,610 7,500
Janka side hardness 740 to 1,250 lb for dry material. Amsler toughness 204 in.-lb. for dry material (2-cm specimen).
Drying and Shrinkage: Seasons well without degrade. Kiln schedule T6-D2 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T3-D1 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 3.8%; tangential 7.0%; volumetric 11.8%.
Working Properties: Generally reported to saw and machine well, but some species are silicious and have a blunting effect on cutters; rather difficult to finish; cuts well on rotary lathe or slicer.
Durability: The wood is perishable, little resistance to attack by decay fungi and termites, liable to blue stain.
Preservation: Reported to have good treatability.
Uses: General carpentry, joinery, veneer and plywood, furniture components.
Additional Reading: (3), (9), (47), (49), (64)
3. Bolza, E., and W. G. Keating. 1972. African timbers-the properties, uses, and characteristics of 700 species. CSIRO. Div. of Build. Res., Melbourne, Australia.
9. Farmer, R. H. 1972. Handbook of hardwoods. H. M. Stationery Office. London.
47.Sallenave, P. 1971. Proprietes physiques et mecaniques des bois tropicaux. Deuxieme Supplement. Centre Tech. For. Trop.
49. Tack, C. H. 1958. The strength properties of some Uganda timbers. For. Dep. Bull. No. 5.
64. Uganda: For. Dep. 1956. Osan (Aningeria altissima). Timb. Leafl. For. Dep. Uganda No. 28.
From: Chudnoff, Martin. 1984. Tropical Timbers of the World. USDA Forest Service. Ag. Handbook No. 607.