USDA Forest Service
Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53705-2398
Wood Technical Fact Sheet
Other Common Names: Efuodwe (Ghana), Sipo (ivory Coast), Okeong (Nigeria), Assie (Cameroon), Kosi-Kosi (Gabon), Mufumbi (Uganda).
Distribution: Principally from West and Central Africa. Occurs in moist deciduous high forests, dry subtypes, and transitional formations. Rather abundant in the Ivory Coast.
The Tree: Grows to a height of 150 to 200 ft; bole is straight, cylindrical, and clear to 100 ft, occasionally fluted; diameter above buttresses may reach 8 ft.
General Characteristics: Heartwood fairly uniform red- or purple brown; well demarcated from the light brown sapwood. Texture medium; grain interlocked and rather irregular, has a less uniform stripe figure than sapele; has a faint cedarlike scent. Timber is corrosive to metals.
Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) about 0.53; air-dry density 41 pcf.
Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
Green (9) 11,400 1,390 5,540
12% 15,000 1,560 8,760
12% (24) 13,700 1,610 7,900
Janka side hardness 1,080 lb for green material and 1,260 lb for dry. Amsler toughness 144 in.-lb for dry material (2-cm specimen).
Drying and Shrinkage: Air-dries at a slow to moderate rate with a slight to marked tendency to end-check and warp. Kiln-dries satisfactorily, usually with only slight degrade; schedule T2-D4 is suggested for 4/4 stock and T2-D3 for 8/4. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 4.6%; tangential 6.4%; volumetric 11.0%. Movement in service is rated as medium.
Working Properties: Works fairly easily with hand and machine tools, interlocked grain may cause tearing in planing and shaping, finishes well, glues and nails easily.
Durability: Heartwood is moderately resistant to attack by decay fungi and termites. Sapwood is liable to attack by powder-post beetle.
Preservation: Heartwood is extremely resistant to treatment; sapwood is easy to treat.
Uses: Furniture and cabinetwork, joinery, decorative veneers and plywood, boat construction.
Additional Reading: (3), (8), (9), (24)