USDA Forest Service
Forest Products Laboratory
One Gifford Pinchot Drive
Madison, WI 53705-2398
Wood Technical Fact Sheet
Other Common Names: Mubura (Tanzania, Uganda), Kpar (Liberia), Esagko, Inyi (Nigeria), Mampata (Senegal).
Distribution: Widely distributed in tropical Africa, occurs gregariously at elevations between 3,000 and 6,000 ft.
The Tree: Grows to a height of 150 to 170 ft; bole cylindrical, mostly straight, usually clear to 60 to 90 ft; buttressed to a height of 10 ft, trunk diameters 3 to 5 ft.
General Characteristics: Heartwood pale red- or chocolate brown, darkening on exposure; sapwood yellowish white, sharply demarcated. Grain usually interlocked and irregular; texture moderately coarse; has a honey scent when freshly sawn, disappears on drying. Silica content often 1% or more.
Weight: Basic specific gravity (ovendry weight/green volume) 0.62 to 0.75; air- dry density 47 to 57 pcf.
Mechanical Properties: (2-cm standard)
Moisture content Bending strength Modulus of elasticity Maximum crushing strength
(%) (Psi) (1,000 psi) (Psi)
12% (40) 17,800 1,940 9,500
12% (46) 23,600 2,260 12,000
Janka side hardness 1,720 lb for dry material. Amsler toughness 228 in.-lb at 12% moisture content (2-cm specimen).
Drying and Shrinkage: Seasons slowly with a tendency to check and warp. Air- drying prior to kiln drying is suggested. Kiln schedule T2-C2 is suggested for 4/4 stock. Shrinkage green to ovendry: radial 6.6%; tangential 10.2%; volumetric 16.0%. Movement in service is rated as large.
Working Properties: Dry timber is difficult to work with hand and machine tools due to high silica, tungsten-carbide tipped cutters are needed, has moderately good steam-bending properties, glues satisfactorily.
Durability: Heartwood is nondurable and liable to termite attack; reported to be resistant to marine borers.
Preservation: Heartwood fairly resistant to treatment; sapwood permeable.
Uses: Mining timbers, heavy construction, railroad crossties (if treated). Has an edible fruit.
Additional Reading: (3), (9), (40), (46)